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3. Experimental Psi

The largest category, reflecting the SPR’s interest in studying telepathic and other psychical phenomena under controlled conditions. Papers are concerned with experiments in telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, psychokinesis, DMILS (direct mental interactions between living systems), and with methodological and theoretical issues.

keywords: experiments, telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, psychokinesis, DMILS, personality, methodology, theory

Barrett, W.F. et al. FIRST REPORT ON THOUGHT-READING, Proceedings 1, 1882, pp. 34-64. This paper starts by reviewing the generally understood principles and objections to the idea of thought-transference, with reference to the sceptical views of the psychologist William Carpenter. The acts of well-known stage performers Irving Bishop and Stuart Cumberland are also noted and the fact acknowledged that feats seemingly suggestive of thought-transference are most likely achieved through purely physical means. However the authors argue the case for the transference of thoughts independent of any known sensory mechanism, with reference to experiments with the Creery family. The committee investigated the claim by Creery that four of his five daughters, together with a servant girl, were ‘frequently able to designate correctly, without contact or sign, a card or other object fixed on in the child’s absence.’ A number of trials are described, in which the claim appear to be largely confirmed. In one card guessing experiment (p.23), out of fourteen successive trials nine were guessed correctly the first time. The girls were also able to achieve close approximations of names selected, for instance ‘Freemore’ for ‘Frogmore’, and ‘Biggis’ for ‘Billings’. The possibility of sensory clues being given is discussed and largely discounted. The first part ends with two anecdotal cases of telepathy, one involving a waking vision and the other a premonition of fatal illness, both corresponding to actual events. More trials with the Creery family are described, followed by reflections from Creery himself, and a final paper by Barratt on his investigations with other subjects. telepathy/experiments

Gurney, E. et al. SECOND REPORT ON THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 1, 1882, pp.70-97. More card guessing trials with the Creery sisters are given, with instances of what the writers consider to be significant successes. Experiments involving a member, Douglas Blackburn, and a mesmerist G. A. Smith are also described, in which the latter was often able to correctly reproduce shapes drawn the experimenters and briefly shown to Blackburn. (These experiments were later the cause of confusion and embarrassment, when Blackburn publicly asserted the pair had been cheating, which however Smith denied - See here below: Blackburn, Douglas, et al. CONFESSIONS OF A ‘TELEPATHIST’, Journal 15, 1911, pp. 115-32.) telepathy/experiments

Gurney, E. et al. THIRD REPORT ON THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 1, 1882-3, pp. 161-215. The seemingly telepathic drawings of Blackburn and Smith are investigated in depth at the Society’s premises. The method used is described: Smith being blindfolded at a table, a paper and pencil within his reach, and a member of the Committee sitting beside him. Another Committee member leaves the room and draws some figure at random. Blackburn is called out, shown the drawing for a few seconds, led back into the room and made to sit two feet behind Smith, with his eyes closed or covered. Smith attempts to draw what he perceives to be the image in Blackburn’s mind, and the results are then compared with the original. Only eight out of a total of 37 such experiments are said to have failed completely, either as wrong interpretations or inability to make an attempt. Other close approximations are given. Various possibilities of sensory communication are considered, including audible signals by speech or otherwise. A tabulated summary of results so far achieved in these and other experiments follows. telepathy/experiments

Guthrie, M. & Birchall, J.   RECORD OF EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 1, 1883, pp. 263-83. Thought-transference experiments with two young women, long time acquaintances of one of the authors. The results are given in tabulated form: the agent, percipient, the object to be guessed and the guess itself. Some examples: a ‘large spot of scarlet silk on black satin’ is perceived as ‘a round red spot’; an egg...’looks remarkably like an egg’; a gold cross ... ‘it is yellow, it is a cross’; etc. telepathy/experiments

Guthrie, Malcolm, AN ACCOUNT OF SOME EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 2, 1983, pp. 24-42. Guthrie briefly describes his interest in thought-reading and early experiments with his son, at first successful but later marred by cheating. He then gives a fuller account of the experiments described above, and includes drawings successfully identified by the subjects. telepathy/experiments

Sugden, E.H. NOTE ON MUSCLE-READING, Proceedings 1, 1883, pp. 291-3. Brief description of experiments in which the author claimed to be able to duplicate feats often called ‘thought-reading’ by the process of muscle-reading exhibited by stage performers like Stuart Cumberland. telepathy/experiments/cheating 

Gurney, Edmund et al. FOURTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 2, 1883, pp. 1-11. New experiments, categorized as: transference of tastes; transference of pains; informal experiments by members; unconscious muscular action. Illustrations, pp 208-17. telepathy/experiments

Lodge, Oliver. AN ACCOUNT OF SOME EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 2, 1883-4, pp. 189-200. A description of experiments involving the reproduction of drawings. telepathy/experiments

Gurney, Edmund. M RICHET’S RECENT RESEARCHES IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 2, 1884, pp. 239-56. Resume of an investigation by a French psychical researcher, in which importance is attached for the first time in the quantity of card guessing trials undertaken and a statistical analysis in establishing their significance or otherwise. Only a slight improvement is observed over chance in trials by subjects not previously noted for special abilities. Experiments involving attempts to ‘divine’ the whereabouts of hidden objects produces more obviously suggestive results. ‘Table turning’ is investigated in a similar way. Richet stresses that many more such trials would have to be undertaken before the outcome could be accurately assessed, although Gurney is inclined to feel the results are more significant than he allows. NOTE, pp. 257-64. M. GOMALEZ ON THE EXPERIMENTS OF M. CHARLES RICHET, Journal 2, 1885, pp. 33-4. A criticism is briefly reported. telepathy/clairvoyance/psychokinesis/experiments

Sidgwick, H. [LECTURE], Journal 1, 1884, pp. 8-9. Report of a lecture given by Henry Sidgwick on results so far obtained by the SPR on thought- transference, in which he emphasizes the methodical and discriminating approach adopted. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Anon. INVOLUNTARY GUIDANCE WITHOUT CONTACT, Journal 1, 1884, pp. 63-4. Brief record of American experiments tending to indicate that unconscious guidance by the agent is implicated in apparent demonstrations of thought-transference. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Anon. CHANCE GUESSING VERSUS THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 1, 1884, p. 65. A sceptic is converted to belief in the inexplicability of the Creery sisters’ results by chance coincidence. [CREERY SISTERS], Journal 3, 1887, pp. 164. Announces the discovery of cheating by the sisters. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 175-6. The girls’ father records his belief that early experiments which he personally instigated could not have involved trickery. NOTE, Proceedings 5, 1888-9, pp. 269-70. Gurney reveals that in a recent series of experiments two of the sisters were detected using a code of signals, and a third has confessed to signalling in an earlier series. He points out that the cheating was pointless, since it had been explained to the sisters that no scientific value was attached to experiments in which they acted as agent and percipient in sight of each other, but accepts that it discredits earlier results in which they were involved. telepathy/experiments 

Sidgwick, Eleanor. ON VISION WITH SEALED AND BANDAGED EYES, Journal 1, 1884, pp. 84-6. Report on a convincing demonstration by Richard Hodgson of the large degree of residual sight that can remain to a person whose eyes are bandaged. See also SPONTANEOUS PSI: EXPOSURE OF A TRICK CODE, Journal 9, 1899, pp. 61-4. telepathy/experiments/magic/methodology

Hopps, J. Page. SOME NEW EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 1, 1884, pp. 111-2. Brief record of thought-transference experiments at a house party, in which two young women were successfully willed to perform certain pre-agreed actions and to find objects. telepathy/eperiments

Guthrie, Malcolm. FURTHER REPORT ON EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE AT LIVERPOOL, Proceedings 3, 1885, pp. 424-52. Detailed descriptions of new experiments. telepathy/experiments

Chiltoff, A. ON THE ACTION OF THE WILL AT A DISTANCE, Journal 1, 1885, pp. 275-6. Brief record of successful experiments in which subjects were ‘influenced’ to carry out orders transmitted telepathically. telepathy/experiments

Eubule-Evans, A. NOTES ON THE DIRECT TRANSFERENCE OF BRAIN IMPRESSIONS, Journal 1, 1885, pp. 318-20. Brief record of card-guessing experiments: small number of trials with many accurate or close guesses. telepathy/experiments

Sidgwick, Eleanor. PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH, Journal 2, 1885, pp. 93-4. Brief report on the first issue of the sister Society’s publication, mainly on thought-transference experiments. telepathy/experiments

Dessoir, Max. EXPERIMENTS IN MUSCLE-READING AND THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 4, 1886, pp. 111-26. German experiments demonstrate the efficacy of muscle-reading as a means of faking thought-transference as well as apparent successes in drawing and card guessing trials where no touching was involved. NOTE, Proceedings 5, 1889, pp. 355-7. telepathy/experiments/magic/cheating

Schmoll, Anton. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 4, 1886, pp. 324-37. A percipient sitting in a corner with his/her back to the room receives accurate impressions of shapes and objects that agents in the centre of the room are attempting to transmit telepathically. telepathy/experiments

Beatty, Octavius. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 2, 1886, pp. 183-4. Brief note on experiments with two sisters acting as agent and percipient. One was blindfolded and attempted to guess which card the other was thinking of: no actual cards were used. Small number of trials, several hits. telepathy/experiments

Anon. MESMERIC EXPERIMENTS, Journal 3, 1887, pp. 55-6. Report on inconclusive experiments by the Society into the claimed thought -transference abilities of a stage mesmerist. telepathy/hypnosis/experiments

Downing, C. THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 3, 1887, pp. 77-9. Proposes questions for future thought transference experiments. See also THE THREE MENTAL CONDITIONS IN THE MIND OF TELEPATHIC AGENTS, pp. 109-12. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 147-8. Describes experiments in which success followed in inverse proportion to the expectation of it. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 174, 192-4. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Shield, Mary E. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 3, 1887, pp. 179-91. Record of successful experiments involving transference of thoughts of actions or objects involving two maid-servants and a ‘rough farm lad.’ Includes tables. Further experiments are described in Journal 5, 1892 pp. 189-91; 276-9. telepathy/experiments

Schmoll, A. & Mabire, J.E. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 5, 1888-9, pp. 169-215. Experiments in Paris with the reproduction of drawings, giving details of the method, tabulated results, and illustrations. clairvoyance/experiments

Anon. NEW NUMBER OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASPR, Journal 4, 1889, pp. 66-7. Includes criticisms of thought-transference data on the statistical grounds that people tend to draw certain types of diagrams rather than others, a view rejected by William James. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Taylor, G. Le M. EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON BETWEEN CHANCE AND THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE IN CORRESPONDENCE OF DIAGRAMS, Proceedings 6, 1890, pp. 398-406. The author investigates an objection made by an American sceptic of telepathy experiments, that people have a tendency to draw the same objects and that matches between drawings by agent and percipient will be expected frequently to occur for that reason. The author tests the theory by having people draw 2,000 objects on 40 separate pages, finding one absolute match and a further 19 that might have been taken for telepathic successes. However the author concludes that the patterns that would be expected from a natural concurrence are not present in the results of the Society’s successful telepathy experiments. SUMMARY & DISCUSSION, Journal 4, 1889, pp. 237-9. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Bickford-Smith, R.A.H. EXPERIMENTS WITH MADAME ? IN SEPTEMBER 1889, Journal 4, 1890, pp. 186-8. Experiments with the French clairvoyant. clairvoyance/experiments

Sidgwick, Eleanor. EXPERIMENTS IN APPARENT CLAIRVOYANCE, Journal 4, 1890, pp. 188. Brief record of successful playing card experiments. clairvoyance/experiments

Anon. THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE IN ITALY, Journal 4, 1890, pp. 303-4. Brief description of successful card guessing experiments by Professor Lombroso and Dr. G. Pagliani. telepathy/experiments

Schrenck-Notzing, Baron von. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 7, 1891, pp. 3-22. German experiments in thought-transference which the author considers produce successes inexplicable in terms of chance and seem to indicate ‘with some certainty the operation of a factor not yet perceptible to our senses.’ SUMMARY & DISCUSSION, Journal 5, 1891, pp. 51-2. telepathy/experiments

Backman, Dr Alfred. EXPERIMENTS IN CLAIRVOYANCE, Proceedings 7, 1891-92, pp. 199-220. Record of trance phenomena following from the hypnosis of Swedish patients. NOTE, pp. 370-2. DISCUSSION, Journal 5, 1891, pp. 146-7. APPENDIX, Proceedings 8, 1892, pp. 405-12. clairvoyance/hypnosis/experiments

Kirk, J. EXPERIMENTAL THOUGHT-TANSFERENCE FROM A DISTANCE, WITH APPARITION OF AGENT, Journal 5, 1891, pp. 21-30,111-26. The writer describes the success of experiments in which he attempts to telepathically ‘impress’ a female acquaintance with certain actions, at a distance. The subject reports seeing his apparition performing these actions at the time the experiments were undertaken. Greater detail, with tables and illustrations, is provided in two subsequent papers: Journal 5, 1891, pp. 111-26; Journal 5, 1892, pp. 182-89. telepathy/experiments

Anon. INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, Journal 5, 1892, pp. 249-50. Also pp. 283-93. Report on an international conference held in London, organised by Society members and exploited by them as a means of drawing the attention of the psychology community to evidence of telepathy. A detailed report follows of exchanges on the topic of hypnosis, with Frederic Myers, Pierre Janet and A. Schrenck-Notzing among the participants. Sidgwick describes the method involved in analysing the results of the Census of Hallucinations. An American psychologist insists that the experience of an hallucination by definition implies ‘some serious organic disturbance’, a view which Myers contests. hypnosis/telepathy/hallucinations/experiments

Lodge, Oliver. [EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT TRANSFERENCE], Journal 5, 1891, pp. 167-8. Describes successful experiments in thought transference with two young girls, although they need some physical contact, however slight. telepathy/experiments

Lodge, Oliver. SOME RECENT THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE EXPERIMENTS, Proceedings 7, 1892, pp. 374-82. Short record of experiments with a family in Austria, with several matches in drawings. telepathy/experiments

Thaw, A. Blair. SOME EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 8, 1892, pp. 422-35. Experiments that involve guessing objects, playing cards, numbers, colours and willing certain actions. telepathy/experiments

Sidgwick, Eleanor & Johnson, Alice. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 8, 1892, pp. 536-96. Experiments, mainly guessing two-digit numbers and pictures, with some successes reported. telepathy/experiments

Anon. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT TRANSFERENCE, Journal 6, 1893, pp. 4-9. Also Journal 7, 1896, pp. 234-8. Record of card-guessing. In one series 43 successful guesses were made in 56 trials, where a chance result would most probably have been 28. Both agent and percipient give individual accounts of their impressions. telepathy/experiments

Anon. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT TRANSFERENCE FROM A DISTANCE, Journal 6, 1893, pp. 98-101. Also Journal 7, 1896, pp. 323-9. Partial success is recorded in telepathic experiments with drawings over a distance of 200 miles. telepathy/experiments

Anon. RECENT FRENCH EXPERIMENTS IN MENTAL SUGGESTION CLAIRVOYANCE, AND HYPNOTISATION AT A DISTANCE, Journal 6, 1893, p. 171. Brief record of French experiments. clairvoyance/hypnosis/experiments

Podmore, Frank. RECENT EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT TRANSFERENCE AT A DISTANCE, Journal 6, 1894, pp. 227-8. Brief report of a reading. telepathy/experiments

Solovovo, M. Petrovo. ACCOUNT OF SOME EXPERIMENTS IN APPARENT CLAIRVOYANCE, Journal 6, 1894, pp. 296-302. Evidence of clairvoyance is described in experiments with a Russian subject. clairvoyance/experiments

Rawson, Henry G. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 11, 1895, pp. 2-17. (See also Journal 3, pp. 147, 182, 192). Record of card-guessing and drawing experiments by a barrister with friends, which produced some striking hits. telepathy/experiments

Verrall, A.W. & Stanger, C.P. SOME EXPERIMENTS ON THE SUPERNORMAL ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE, Proceedings 11, 1895, pp. 174-97. Record of the author’s thought-transference experiments using card guessing and drawings, followed by statistical analysis. telepathy/experiments

Robertson, N. EXPERIMENTS IN APPARENT CLAIRVOYANCE, Journal 7, 1895, pp. 5-6. Description of successful card guessing experiments by the author (abstract). telepathy/experiments

Verrall, Mrs A.W. SOME EXPERIMENTS IN THE SUPERNORMAL ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE, Journal 7, 1895, pp. 34-6. Describes the author’s personal experiments with playing cards (abstract and discussion). telepathy/experiments

Anon. A DIARY OF TELEPATHIC IMPRESSIONS, Journal 7, 1895, pp. 299-306, 311-9. Daily record of apparently successful attempts by a sick woman to send telepathic messages. telepathy/experiments

Hyslop, James A. SOME EXPERIMENTS IN CRYSTAL-VISION, Proceedings 12, 1897, pp. 259-76. Reports of an attempt to induce visions by looking at a crystal ball. clairvoyance/experiments

Sidgwick, Henry. INVOLUNTARY WHISPERING CONSIDERED IN RELATION TO EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 12, 1897, pp. 298-315. Danish investigations are considered to have strengthened the possibility of involuntary or ‘semi-voluntary’ whispering in thought-transference experiments. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 9, 1899, pp. 113-20. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Myers, Frederic W.H. RECENT EXPERIMENTS IN NORMAL MOTOR AUTOMATISM, Proceedings 12, 1897, pp. 316-8. Briefly reviews two new experiments on automatic writing. automatic writing/experiments

Anon. EXPERIMENTS IN CRYSTAL VISION, Journal 8, 1897, pp. 71-4. Description of experiments suggestive of clairvoyance by a Russian member. clairvoyance/experiments

Anon. REPORT OF EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE MADE BY THE HYPNOTIC COMMITTEE, Journal 8, 1898, p. 226. Brief record of experiments with insignificant results. telepathy/hypnosis/experiments

Anon. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 8, 1898, p. 233. A correspondent proposes improvements to experimental methods. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Chattock, A.P. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 8, 1898, pp. 302-7. Record of impromptu card guessing and drawing experiments, with some significant results. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 9, 1899, pp. 9-11. telepathy/experiments

Anon. METHODS OF SUBLIMINAL MENTATION, Journal 10, 1901, pp. 47-8, 61-2. A member’s appeal for descriptions of card-reading experiences similar to her own prompts speculations on the modus operandi of this facility and a correspondent describes being aware of events fractionally before they occur. telepathy/precognition/experiments

Anon. PROPOSED EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 10, 1901, pp. 149-50. Appeal to members to take part in experiments. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 223-4. telepathy/experiments

Anon. TELEPATHIC EXPERIMENTS WITH DR RICHARDSON, Journal 11, 1904, pp. 237-44. A subject of experiments in telepathy at a distance found convincing by some observers submits to investigation by the Society which, however, finds no basis to the claims. telepathy/experiments

Fryer, A.T. A SUGGESTION FOR INVESTIGATORS, Journal 12, 1905, pp. 63-4. Comments on the brevity of actual information passed in cases of thought-transference, a single idea of image being expanded in the mind of the percipient. telepathy/experiments

Stratton F.J.M. & Phillips, P. SOME EXPERIMENTS WITH THE STHENOMETER, Journal 12, 1906, pp. 335-9. A device claimed by a French experimenter, P. Joire, to record a nerve force emanating from the body is shown in the Society’s view to be actually influenced by body heat. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 13, 1907, pp. 44-6 (in French). Joire responds in French; Stratton repeats his criticism. psi/experiments/methodology

Anon. ON EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 12, 1906, pp. 345-7. A correspondent proposes ideas for telepathic experiments influenced by Christian Science. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Miles, Clarissa & Ramsden, Hermione. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 21, 1908, pp. 60-93. A record of successful attempts at thought-transference between an agent living in London and a percipient 20 miles away in Buckinghamshire. telepathy/experiments

Miles, Clarissa. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT TRANSFERENCE, Journal 13, 1908, pp. 243-62. Continuation of experiments in thought-transference. The author acted as agent, comparing the facts of her daily experience during a tour of France with the impressions recorded by a friend at a distance, acting as the percipient, sent on a postcard. Several hits are described, some illustrated by drawings and photographs. telepathy/experiments

Anon. DR J D QUACKENBOS’ ‘HYPNOTIC THERAPEUTICS IN THEORY AND PRACTICE, Journal 13, 1908, pp. 220-21. Describes successful experiments in clairvoyant remote viewing. clairvoyance/experiments

Podmore, Frank. DREIMONATLICHER BERICHT DES PSYCHOPHYSISCHEN LABORATORIUMS ZU AMSTERDAM, Journal 13, 1908, pp. 277-80. Description of partly successful German experiments, in which the agent looked briefly at a card containing an idea and the percipient sitting at a table wrote or drew his impressions. telepathy/experiments

Anon. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 14, 1910, pp. 392-9. Some parallels are recorded in experiments between agent and subject at a distance. telepathy/experiments

Blackburn, Douglas et al. CONFESSIONS OF A ‘TELEPATHIST’, Journal 15, 1911, pp. 115-32. Douglas Blackburn, one of two subjects in telepathy experiments undertaken by Myers and Gurney nearly thirty years earlier, now publicly asserts that these were fraudulent and reveals the methods by which the pair supposedly deceived the investigators. Their motive, he writes, was to ‘show how utterly incompetent were these ‘scientific investigators,’ ... bamboozle them thoroughly, then let the world know the value of scientific research. ‘ The editor of Light writes to deny Blackburn’s claim that the paper published an enthusiastic account of his abilities and that this was the basis upon which the Society laid its interest in him and his partner in the experiments. His partner, G.A. Smith, writes at length to deny the claims of fraud, saying that it is a ‘tissue of errors from beginning to end.’ He denies the pair had an agreement to deceive the investigators and argues that they were too experienced to be taken in. Blackburn, surprised to discover that his erstwhile partner is still alive, is forced to defend his claims at greater length, eliciting a further response from Smith. Brief communications from members of the Society include a letter from Eleanor Sidgwick, pointing out that the experiments in which Blackburn took part are ‘a very small part of those on which the case for telepathy rests’. telepathy/experiments/cheating

Lodge, Oliver. REPORT ON A CASE OF TELEPATHY, Journal 16, 1913, pp. 114-18. Lodge is invited to visit a 14-year-old girl, whose father claims has telepathic ability. Using playing cards he establishes that she has no clairvoyant ability to know the next card in the sequence, but often guesses it correctly when he picks it up and identifies it to himself. clairvoyance/telepathy/experiments

Miles, Clarissa & Ramsden, Hermione. EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 27, 1914, pp. 279-317. Record of successful experiments, in which percipients attempt to draw scenes seen by or describe the actions of an agent on specific days. telepathy/experiments

Coover, John E. THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE - EXPERIMENTAL, Proceedings 27, 1914, pp. 186-90. Brief introduction to American experiments that failed to produce significant results. telepathy/experiments

Feilding, Everard & Johnson, Alice. REPORT ON SOME EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 16, 1914, pp. 164-7. Reveals that the child previously investigated by Oliver Lodge (Journal 16, 1913, pp. 114-18) takes every opportunity to cheat, although this seems generally to inhibit a power that other research suggests is genuine. clairvoyance/telepathy/experiments

Baggally, W.W. REPORT ON EXPERIMENTS WITH ‘AMY JOYCE’, Journal 16, 1914, pp. 168-73. Describes a series of experiments which, despite obvious attempts at cheating, demonstrate what the author believes is genuine telepathic ability. See also Journal 16, 1913,pp. 114-18 and Journal 16, 1914, pp.164-7. clairvoyance/telepathy/experiments

Hill, J. Arthur. NOTE ON THE EXPERIMENTS WITH ‘AMY JOYCE’, Journal 16, 1914, pp. 173-5. More on the girl’s ability to see cards reflected in the agent’s spectacles, and on her seemingly genuine ability to telepathically identify cards and diagrams ‘to an extent far beyond what chance would account for.’ See also Journal 16, 1913, pp.114-18 and Journal 16, 1914, pp.164-7, 168-73. clairvoyance/telepathy/experiments

Verrall, Helen de G. SOME RECENT EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Proceedings 27, 1915, pp. 415-57. Record of experiments in which agent and percipient were in different rooms in the same house. Nine out of the total of 34 are reckoned to be successful: the full records of these are given. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments

Murray, Gilbert. PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS, Proceedings 29, 1916, pp. 46-63. The author briefly records instances of his personal telepathic awareness, both spontaneous and in experiments with his family. He describes the involvement of sense impressions, for instance of smell and sight, in becoming aware of scenes and situations. He supports Henri Bergson’s contention that ‘telepathy is as a matter of fact operating at every moment and everywhere,’ and suggests that it is fundamental to the formation of language. telepathy/experiments/theory

Verrall, Mrs. A.W. REPORT ON A SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS IN ‘GUESSING’, Proceedings 29, 1916, pp. 64-110. Gilbert Murray’s experiments are recorded in detail. Seven out of the eight are classed by Verrall as successes and one as a partial success. telepathy/experiments

Hyslop, James H. A NOTE ON ‘SOME RECENT EXPERIMENTS IN TELEPATHY’, Journal 17, 1916, pp. 160-62. Argues for clairvoyance rather than telepathy in Mrs Verrall’s account in Proceedings 27, 1915, pp.415-57. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments/theory

Loon, F.H. van & Weinberg, A.A. A METHOD OF INVESTIGATION INTO THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 20, 1921, pp. 4-23, 34-49. Experiments based on the notion that telepathy requires strong emotion, and avoiding the visual impressions of shape used in previous investigations in favour of colour, taste, feelings and moods. The investigators conclude that telepathy occurs and confirm that emotional processes of consciousness are more easily transmitted than others, since these make the strongest impression on the agent. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Tyrrell, G.N.M. THE CASE OF MISS NANCY SINCLAIR, Journal 20, 1922, pp. 294-327. Describes the author’s personal experiences with a sensitive intimately known to himself and his wife. The woman has no training or interest in psychism but manifests a psychic ability in a number of areas: telepathy, clairvoyant impressions, analgesia, light and deep trance, automatic writing, precognition, dreams, crystal visions, etc. The author notes that attempts to control and exploit this ability in experiments often fail: the faculty seems to work best when her mind is not focused on it. However he succeeds in eliciting evidence, seemingly of clairvoyance, in card tests. volitional psi/telepathy/precognition/clairvoyance/experiments

Best, Clifford. [A LABORATORY FOR PSYCHIC RESEARCH], Journal 21, 1923, pp. 16-7. Announces an individual initiative, a laboratory equipped with apparatus aimed at detecting the human aura. experiments/methodology/aura

Anon. DR PAGENSTECHER’S EXPERIMENTS IN PSYCHOMETRY, Journal 21, 1924, pp. 216-9. Detailed abstract of an American report on a Mexican clairvoyant, Maria Reyes de Z. Some successes are attributed to telepathy, for instance where she is able to provide a description only when the relevant circumstances are known to the experiment. However she also successfully describes the circumstances surrounding the writing of a letter on board a sinking ship, of which the experimenter and others near her are ignorant. See also Proceedings of the ASPR, vols. 15-16. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments

Dingwall, E.J. AN EXPERIMENT WITH THE POLISH MEDIUM STEPHAN OSSOWIECKI, Journal 21, 1924, pp. 259-63. The author prepares a rough drawing of a bottle which he seals inside a red envelope and places in a brown envelope, with a seal to prevent tampering. He leaves for Warsaw and on his arrival gives the package to Schrenck-Notzing to give to the medium Ossowiecki as a test of clairvoyance. Ossowiecki chooses this envelope out of a total of three that are presented to him, and describes, among other things, a perception of a drawing of a bottle within a red envelope. Dingwall argues there has been no possibility of tampering and that the supernormal character of the incident seems ‘clear and decisive‘. clairvoyance/experiments

Cason, Hulsey. A SIMPLE TEST FOR THOUGHT-TRANSFERENCE, Journal 21, 1924, pp. 314-9. Telepathic experiments by an American academic produce negative results. The author claims to have adopted properly scientific methods and implies that the failure of psychical researchers to do likewise is the basis of their apparent success. However the editor points out that the rigid approach taken by the author militates against the relaxed state required for success, and adds that he has paid no attention to the need to find gifted subjects. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Anon. A CASE OF APPARENT TELEPATHY, Journal 22, 1925, pp. 44-5. The subject in a card guessing experiment, accurately and instantly guesses a card accidentally seen by the agent, suggesting spontaneous telepathy. telepathy/experiments

Thoulless, Robert. PROFESSOR MURRAY’S EXPERIMENTS IN TELEPATHY, Journal 22, 1925, pp. 51-4. Reflections on the public controversy aroused by the experiments and on the hostility of sceptics generally. telepathy/experiments

Thomas, E.S. SUBLIMINAL IDIOSYNCRACIES, Journal 22, 1925, pp. 75-7. With reference to ‘scrying’ clairvoyance, the author reflects on the subjective way that different individuals experience visual phenomena, and suggests this may prove a fruitful line of research. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 127-8. clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

Jephson, Ina. A REPORT ON EXPERIMENTS IN THOUGHT TRANSFERENCE, Journal 24, 1927, pp. 79-88. Record of 42 meetings at the Society’s rooms to carry out telepathy experiments, mainly unsuccessful. telepathy/experiments

Woolley, V.J. THE BROADCASTING EXPERIMENT IN MASS-TELEPATHY, Proceedings 38, 1928, pp. 1-9. An attempt to elicit evidence of telepathy during a BBC radio programme brings inconclusive results. telepathy/experiments

Jephson, Ina. EVIDENCE FOR CLAIRVOYANCE IN CARD-GUESSING: A REPORT ON SOME RECENT EXPERIMENTS, Proceedings 38, 1928, pp. 223-71. The author tests her suspicion that the successful transmission of images from agent to percipient is not due to telepathy between the two, but rather to clairvoyance by the percipient alone. Her early experiments working alone produce some successes which might be attributed to chance, but which show a significant tendency to be grouped at the start of each trial and fall off as it progresses. This tendency is confirmed in extended experiments by her and other individuals. The author provides detailed analysis and graphs of the results. She also describes the circumstances under which success seems to be achieved. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology/theory

Anon. CARD GUESSING EXPERIMENT, Journal 24, 1928, p. 184. Gives instructions for participation in a card guessing experiment. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Anon. A CASE OF ‘TRAVELLING CLAIRVOYANCE’, Journal 25, 1929, pp. 4-9. Informal but seemingly successful attempt at remote viewing. clairvoyance/experiments

C.G.L. DR WINTHER’S EXPERIMENTS IN TELEKINESIS, Journal 25, 1929, pp.15-7. Report of a paper describing pendulum experiments in sittings with the Danish medium Anna Rasmussen, appearing to indicate psychokinesis. The author takes issue with the experimental design. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Jephson, Ina. A REPLY TO M. SUDRE’S ARTICLE ‘TEN EXPERIMENTS IN GUESSING’, Proceedings 39, 1930, pp. 185-8. Responds to criticisms. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology/theory

Fischer, R.A. THE STATISTICAL METHOD IN PSYCHICAL RESEARCH, Proceedings 39, 1930, pp. 189-94. Comments on statistical research of unusual phenomena. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology/theory

Besterman, Theodore et al. REPORT OF A SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS IN CLAIRVOYANCE CONDUCTED AT A DISTANCE UNDER APPROXIMATELY FRAUDPROOF CONDITIONS, Proceedings 39, 1931, pp. 375-414. Record of five series by different groups, including the Society, Gardner Murphy at Columbia University, the Boston SPR, and University College, London, to expand on Jephson’s initial work. Statistical analysis of tests with a total of 559 percipients shows no evidence that clairvoyance ‘is a normal faculty possessed in a slight degree by the majority of civilized persons’ (401-2). telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology/theory

Soal, S.G. EXPERIMENTS IN SUPERNORMAL PERCEPTION AT A DISTANCE, Proceedings 40, 1931, pp. 165-362. Trials are held with 127 high-scorers from a previous experiment with a BBC radio programme, acting as percipients attempting to gain telepathic awareness of ideas and images being communicated by agents at the Society’s offices or in their own homes. Nine months work produces some striking matches but no results consistently suggestive of supernormal faculties. A more involved series with about 500 members of the public over three years is subjected to statistical analysis, again failing to show above-chance effects. However, there does emerge a mass preference for certain geometrical figures, letters of the alphabet, colours, etc. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 27, 1931-2, pp. 345-6. telepathy/experiments

Besterman, Theodore. AN EXPERIMENT IN LONG-DISTANCE TELEPATHY, Journal 27, 1932, pp. 235-6. Two groups of experimenters in Athens and London synchronises the sending of perceptions and mail each other their impressions. No significant results are recorded. telepathy/experiments

Jephson, Ina. A BEHAVIOURIST EXPERIMENT IN CLAIRVOYANCE, Proceedings 41, 1932, pp. 99-114. An attempt is made to correlate card guesses with the preferences revealed in previous clairvoyance experiments, but again with nul results. telepathy/experiments

Besterman, Theodore. AN EXPERIMENT IN ‘CLAIRVOYANCE’ WITH M. STEFAN OSSOWIECKI, Proceedings 41, 1933, pp. 345-53. A Polish clairvoyant accurately describes the contents of a sealed envelope in an experiment which impresses the author. clairvoyance/experiments

Thouless, Robert H. DR RHINE’S RECENT EXPERIMENTS ON TELEPATHY AND CLAIRVOYANCE AND A RECONSIDERATION OF J.E. COOVER’S CONCLUSIONS ON TELEPATHY, Proceedings 43, 1935, pp. 24-39. Reviews arguments put forward by J.B. Rhine in Extra-Sensory Perception that earlier experiments, reported to be negative, actually showed above-chance results, and discusses Rhine’s own results with high-scoring subjects using Zener cards. Rhine, J.B. NOTE, pp. 542-4. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments

Anon. AN APPEAL FOR CO-OPERATION IN FURTHER EXPERIMENTS IN EXTRA-SENSORY PERCEPTION, Proceedings 43, 1935, pp. 38-9. Appeals for readers to take part in ESP experiments. psi/experiments

Tyrrell, G.N.M. SOME EXPERIMENTS IN UNDIFFERENTIATED EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION, Journal 29, 1935, pp. 52-71. Describes the development of a mechanical psi test. Tyrrell works with a percipient, a Miss Johnson, who previously scored highly significant results in card guessing experiments carried out in 1921 (see Journal, June 1922, pp. 318-27. The current experiments started with Johnson finding hidden objects, which enables her to overcome her difficulty in expressing ‘paranormal feeling’ in words and generate a sense of achievement, which Tyrrell takes to be important. This led to the development of an apparatus for guessing which of five boxes contains a die, a process which enables a hundred trials to be made in four minutes or less. A key factor to emerge was the importance of speed: ‘When genuine ESP is at work, each ‘guess’ is accompanied by a powerful urge towards immediate externalization. Anything which delays or thwarts this urge may lead to its being replaced by a semi-conscious guess.’ Of 30,000 trials, 9,364 were successes, 31.21 per cent, compared with chance expectation of 6,000 or 20 per cent. Tyrrell considers factors associated with high scoring, such as good health a tendency towards dissociation, and a stimulus to interest. He also refers to the percipient’s ‘light feeling’, a slight sense of euphoria that suggests the paranormal faculty is working. He then gives consideration to alternative explanations of the results, including an analysis of the statistics, the independence of the trials, the possibility of hyperaesthesia, normal knowledge and fraud, etc. Concludes by challenging critics to show how the apparatus can be used to achieve a comparable result by normal means. Notes by witnesses are appended. CORRESPONDENCE, p. 122. clairvoyance/experimnents/methodology

Carington, Whately. PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS IN PRECOGNITIVE GUESSING, Journal 29, 1935-6, pp. 86-104. See also pages 117-8 and 158-67. Thirty-nine members of the Society and their friends provide the results of trials in which they attempted to guess the outcome of the throw of a dice. The resulting table is analyzed in detail. Little deviation from chance is noted, with the exception of first attempts, where there is a tendency for subjects to score unnaturally high or low. No trace of false results due to distortions are noted. The method is then re-examined in the light of one stellar performance, in which an individual scored 407 successes out of 1200 trials. Carington concludes that ‘something in the nature of precognition occurs’ and that low scoring is as likely to have a paranormal explanation as high scoring. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 126-30, 155-6 (in French), 167-9. precognition/experiments

Soal, S.G. A REPETITION OF DR J.B.RHINE’S WORK IN EXTRA-SENSORY PERCEPTION, Journal 30, 1937, pp. 55-8. Describes an attempt to replicate card-guessing experiments successfully carried out by J.B. Rhine. Efforts are made to eliminate possible distortions that may have affected Rhine’s work, in the use of a thousand different cards to avoid the subject ‘learning’ marks on the back of individual cards, and possible causes of sensory leakage. A total of 93 people of many different nationalities sat as subjects. Only four showed any signs of significant scoring. The tendency of some individuals to score below chance expectation is noted, also the general tendency to score runs of five or more successes in unbroken sequent considerably in excess of chance expectation, suggesting that ‘for most people telepathy...takes place in very brief flashes... ‘. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Dingwall, E.J. ‘EXTRA-SENSORY PERCEPTION’ IN THE USA, Journal 30, 1937, pp. 140-41. Claims that cards similar to those used for successful ESP experiments are actually transparent, enabling the subject to discern the symbol from the back. Dingwall implies that the experiments should be disregarded. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 30, 1938, pp. 153-5, 188-9, 199-202. Dingwall is rebuked by Saltmarsh, who argues that he does not show whether or how the alleged flaw might have affected the actual experiments and that he is relying on innuendo to discredit them. Besterman agrees, adding, ? respectfully suggest to Dr Dingwall that he should give details of time and place or be content to have his letter ignored.’ (See also p. 201-2.) Dingwall replies, offering more details. psi /telepathy/experiments/methodology

Herbert, C.V.C. EXPERIMENT IN EXTRA-SENSORY PERCEPTION, Journal 30, 1937, pp. 215-8. Detailed examination of the Zener cards used for ESP experiments at Duke University reveals a number of flaws, including a transparency that enables them to be read from the back. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 257-9. See also: Medhurst, R. G. NOTE ON THE ‘ESP’ CARDS DESIGNED IN THE PARAPSYCHOLOGY LABORATORY, DUKE UNIVERSITY, Journal 45, 1969, pp. 81-5. telapathy/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

Rayleigh, Lord. THE QUESTION OF LIGHTS SUPPOSED TO HAVE BEEN OBSERVED NEAR THE POLES OF A MAGNET, Proceedings 45, 1938, pp. 19-24. Experiments fail to confirm the existence of the Reichenbach Phenomena, claimed by William Barrett, i.e the ability of ‘sensitives’ to perceive light emanating from the poles of a magnet in conditions of darkness. experiments/electromagnetisni

Carington, Whately. SOME EARLY EXPERIMENTS PROVIDING APPARENTLY POSITIVE EVIDENCE FOR EXTRA-SENSORY PERCEPTION, Journal 30, 1938, pp. 295-305. Attempts to arrive at a more certain judgment of the reality or otherwise of telepathy and clairvoyance by a consideration of early quantitative experiments, in which careful attention was given to avoiding any form of sensory leakage. Carington begins with a consideration of Coover’s work, which despite the experimenter’s strong resistance to admitting evidence in favour of ESP showed highly significant results. Turning to Troland, he notes a likely non-chance factor at work in the tendency to low scoring in 15 second trials compared with those of 30 seconds. He then describes the work of Estabrooks with university students, which were Overwhelmingly positive’. Significant below-chance scores also appeared in other trials. Other cases he describes include that of Heymans, Brugmans and Wynberg at Groningen, which involved a blindfolded subject indicating which of 48 numbers had been previously selected by the experimenter, in which 60 successes were scored out of a total of 187 trials. Various shortcomings in the experimental method are identified, but a visit to Groningen convinces Carington that the results are sound: he notes also the fact that in one sixth of the trials, the subject was given a dose of alcohol before the session and scored 22 successes in 29 trials. Finally, Carington considers the work of Usher and Burt carried out in 1907 and published in Annales Des Sciences Psychiques in 1910, perhaps the most convincing case he knows: the issue of sensory leakage is not present as the agent and the percipient are in different towns: London and Bristol, and London and Prague. Carington concludes by affirming that although these published experiments indicate that causes other than chance are at work, this does not automatically imply a the presence of a paranormal faculty of transcendental significance. telpathy/clairvoyance/precognition/experiments/methodology

Thouless, Robert. REPORT ON GLASGOW REPETITION OF DR RHINE’S EXPERIMENTS ON EXTRA-SENSORY PERCEPTION, Proceedings 45, 1939, pp. 252-6. Brief record of an unsuccessful attempt to repeat J.B. Rhine’s successful ESP experiments. psi/telepathy/experiments

Carington, Whately, with an introduction by C.D. Broad. EXPERIMENTS ON THE PARANORMAL COGNITION OF DRAWINGS, Proceedings 46, 1940, pp. 34-151. Five experiments were carried out, using simple drawings as test material. About 250 percipients took part. In no case was any percipient in the same room with the drawing he was required to reproduce, and careful precautions were taken to prevent knowledge being obtained by sensory means or by rational inference. Marking was carried out by an independent judge, who was not given sufficient information to enable him to produce a spurious positive result. It was found that percipients tended, to a highly significant extent, to score relatively more hits on the original drawings used in their own experiment than on those used in other experiments. It was also found that hits were not by any means always scored on the occasions on which the originals to which they referred were displayed, but tended to be displaced to an earlier or later occasion. Both these tendencies appear to be significant, indicating the occurrence of precognitive and retrocognitive effects. A control scoring of the same drawings against a set of randomized ‘dummy’ originals gave null results. Notes on the statistical methods by J.O. Irwin and Oliver Gatty and one by C.D. Broad are appended. The article is preceded by an introduction by CD.Broad urging readers not to be put off by the statistical nature of this report and the one following, by Soal. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 31, 1940, pp. 193-4, 204-8, 209; Journal 32, 1941, pp. 22-4, 44-6, 624. telepathy/clairvoyance/precognition/retrocognition/experiments

Soal, S.G. FRESH LIGHT ON CARD GUESSING SOME NEW EFFECTS. Proceedings 46, 1940, pp. 152-98. Soal tested 160 persons who obtained chance results from 128,350 guesses. He then re-examined his data at the behest of Whately Carington, checking for displacement. From this he discovered two high scoring subjects, Basil Shackleton and Gloria Stewart. In Part I he describes the methods employed and the results of a general statistical analysis of the background of the experiment in relation to the total amount of data collected. The results with Shackleton and Stewart are presented in Part II. PsiLine. telepathy/displacement/experiments

Redmayne, Geoffrey. THE ISOLATION OF THE PERCIPIENT IN TESTS FOR EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION, Proceedings 46, 1940, pp. 245-55. Describes a portable mechanical apparatus with a built-in randomizer for use in ruling out possible experimenter influence in tests for clairvoyance and precognition. Provision is made for feedback to the subject. PsiLine. clairvoyance/precognition/experiments/methodology

Stevens, W.L. ON THE INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA OF CERTAIN EXPERIMENTS IN PARANORMAL COGNITION, Proceedings 46, 1940, pp. 256-60. Questions whether Carington’s experiments in the paranormal cognition of drawings provide evidence for telepathy or any other form of ESP. Restates the null hypothesis and shows how it could be wrong for a number of reasons. Shows how telepathy could be tested although in Carington’s experiments it was not. PsiLine Carington, Whately. REPLY TO MR. STEVEN’S CRITICISM, pp. 261-4. Criticises Steven’s definition of ‘null hypothesis’ and argues that the test does not depend on the criteria that Stevens discusses. psi/telepathy/experiments

Richmond, Kenneth. PARANORMAL COGNITION: SOME OBSERVED RESULTS IN MR SOAL’S FURTHER EXPERIMENTS, Journal 32, 1941, pp. 71-83. Record of personal impressions by of one of the witnesses to the experiments. telepathy/precognition/experiments

West, D.J. EXPERIMENTS IN TELEPATHY JUNE-JULY 1941, Journal 32, 1941, pp. 96-9. Author’s abstract: The percipient was, in all cases, asked to guess which of five articles, all known to him, was being ‘concentrated upon.’ 2000 trials were carried out, using a variety of materials. The results showed a fairly steady increase in the percipient’s telepathic faculty as the experiments proceeded. The success varied considerably with the type of material used. When the percipient was asked to guess more slowly he had no success whatever. telepathy/experiments

Carington, Whately. EXPERIMENTS ON THE PARANORMAL COGNITION OF DRAWINGS, Proceedings 46, 1941, pp. 277-344. Full description of controlled ESP experiments. Fifty original drawings, randomly selected from a larger list, were made by a third party and enclosed in envelopes. Ten of these were then taken at random and divided into two groups of five each. They were put up as targets for the percipients, first in their closed (‘unknown’) state and later after they had been opened and copied by the experimenter. The drawings received were suitably randomized and were scored by the experimenter against the ten working originals. They were later scored against the whole fifty originals from which these ten had been taken by an independent judge. Neither scoring shows an appreciable advantage for the known as compared with the unknown condition. In the second experiment reported, each of five ‘primary’ experimenters prepared and displayed ten randomly selected originals on ten successive nights, at Glasgow, Edinburgh, Oxford, Bristol, and Reading. Attempts to reproduce these were made by five associated groups of percipients and also by five other groups organized by ‘secondary’ experimenters at Leeds, Cardiff, Birmingham, London, and Cambridge. Taken as a whole, the experiment appears to have been intrinsically successful, but the percipients of particular groups did not succeed in scoring relatively more hits on the originals intended for their groups than did the percipients of other groups. That is to say, something in the nature of ‘cross-influence’ or the equivalent seems to have been operative in an important degree. Some further evidence of precognitive and retrocognitive effects was also found. A tentative theory of paranormal cognition is advanced. Next, the drawings of experiments I to 5 were scored on a scale from 10 to 1 against (a) the 50 originals drawn and used for these experiments, (b) the 50 drawn for experiment 6, of which only ten were actually used, (c) the 50 drawn and used by the five experimenters of experiment?, and (d) 163 words (names of possible originals) which might have been selected for illustration in experiments 6 and 7. Examination of the results for the 50 originals of experiments I to 5 indicates that markings below three may advantageously be discarded if the most informative data be required. Finally, no evidence was found of a significant association between success in paranormal cognition of drawings and with differences of gender, age, imagery, or confidence. PsiLine See also Journal 32, 1942, pp. 152-3. psi/telepathy/experiments/methodology/theory

Salter, Helen. EXPERIMENTS IN TELEPATHY WITH DR GILBERT MURRAY, Journal 32, 1941, pp. 29-38. Strikingly accurate results are obtained when the percipient, Murray, guesses scenes and images visualized by agents, including the author, while he is out of the room and well out of earshot. The author discounts auditory hyperaesthesia, which had been advanced as an explanation on earlier occasions. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 61-2, 84, 103. Discusses what is really meant by the concept of hyperaesthesia. telepathy/experiments/theory

Thouless, Robert H. THE PRESENT POSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH INTO TELEPATHY AND RELATED PHENOMENA, Proceedings 46, 1942, pp. 1-19. Reviews the types of evidence for ESP and offers some experimentally testable hypotheses. The Thouless-Wiesner theory of psi is described with Bergson’s thinking as a starting point. PsiLine. telepathy/experiments/methodology/theory

Soal, S.G. & Goldney, K.M. EXPERIMENTS IN PRECOGNITIVE TELEPATHY, Proceedings 46, 1943, pp. 21-150. Describes experiments in card cognition carried out during the years 1941-43 with Basil Shackleton (B.S), whose work in 1936 with Zener cards had shown evidence of precognitive and postcognitive effects. The bulk of the experiments took place in 1941, mostly at weekly intervals; they were resumed, after a 4 months’ gap, in 1942; and after August 1942 three isolated experiments were carried out in the early months of 1943. Throughout, the agent and percipient were in separate rooms, and stringent precautions were taken to eliminate the possibilities of normal leakage, fraud, and collusion. The material for transmission consisted of five animal pictures, but the experiments were equally successful when, in place of the pictures, cards were substituted inscribed with the initial letters of the animals’ names or with ‘associated’ words. It is shown that the precognitive and postcognitive effects obtained were almost certainly of a telepathic rather than clairvoyant character. Shackleton scored highly significant results with three agents. Superficial tests with ten other agents were negative; some of these were for a few calls only. Successful results were obtained using the method of selecting the card to be looked at by lists of random digits prepared before the experiment, and the method of selecting the card to be looked at by drawing coloured counters one by one by touch from a bag while the experiment was in progress. Interesting results were also obtained by the use of non-random lists of digits. With two of the three successful agents it was found that, when the time interval between successive card presentations varied from 2.1 to 3.3 seconds (the ‘normal’ rate), significant precognitive (+1) successes were scored; with the third agent both significant precognitive (+1) and significant post-cognitive (1) hits were obtained. The direct hits on the whole series show no significance. It was also found that when the rate of calling was speeded up so that the interval between successive calls was reduced to 1.5 seconds (the ‘rapid’ rate), the (+1) cognitions disappeared and were replaced by (+2) precognitive successes.   When, on the other hand, the rate of calling was slowed down to an interval of five seconds between successive presentations, the ‘slow’ rate, no ‘beyond chance’ results of any kind were obtained. In so-called ‘clairvoyance’ experiments in which the Agent touched but did not look at the card to be guessed, no significant results of any kind were obtained, and this irrespective of whether B.S. knew or did not know whether the experiment was one of ‘clairvoyance’ or of ‘telepathy’ (in which the agent looked at the cards). The effects of ‘sandwiching’ noted during the work of 1936 are fully confirmed in the present series, and there is strong evidence of a similar effect in connection with (+2) guesses at the ‘rapid’ rate of calling. B.S.’s impressions or prejudgments as to whether his guessing was successful or not appeared to bear no relation to the actual results obtained. Scoring was not equally successful on each of the five animal picture cards. Most success was scored with the Elephant and least with the Lion. A number of persons witnessed the successful scoring and all testified to the fraud proof character of the methods employed. Statistically the precognitive (+1) results on the whole series are highly significant. Including every single experiment between the dates January 24, 1941 and January 6, 1943 at which an agent was present, we have a total of 11,378 (+1) precognitive trials. This total includes tests in both ‘telepathy’ and ‘clairvoyance’ and tests at all rates of calling and with all agents; i.e., we include those conditions which consistently led to negative results as well as conditions which conduced to success. The number of (+1) successes on this grand total is 2,890 compared with an expectation of 2,308.17 by Stevens’s method. We have thus an excess of (+1) hits amounting to 581.83 and equivalent to 13.6 Standard Deviations, with odds of more than 1035 to 1 against chance. PsiLine COMMENT, Journal 33, 1944, pp. 55-6. Apology and justification for the technical language of the report, pointing out that a non-technical abstract summarizes the main results on page 35. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 33, 1944, pp. 62-7. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 33, 1946, pp. 252-3. Announces the departure of Basil Shackleton for South Africa. psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments/methodology

Carington, Whately. EXPERIMENTS ON THE PARANORMAL COGNITION OF DRAWINGS - IV, Proceedings 47, 1942-3, pp. 155-228. Author’s introduction: In the first part (A) of this paper, I deal with such improvements as I have been able to make in experimental method; but a much more detailed discussion is given in the Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research, under the title ‘Steps in the Development of a Repeatable Technique.’ In my second part (B), I discuss at relatively much greater length the theoretical conclusions to which the results obtained, in conjunction with other facts, have provisionally led me. The general reader not interested in the technicalities of experimental method may conveniently omit Part A altogether, without handicap to his understanding of Part B. The theory there propounded was to some extent prompted by certain results obtained by the methods described in A (and perhaps not otherwise obtainable), and is considerably confirmed by others. But the results themselves are given in their proper place in B, while A is concerned only with the kind of method used for obtaining them. I must now try to recapitulate, very briefly, the main points made in this paper. As regards the basic phenomenon of paranormal cognition, or Telepathy, I deny that there is any spatial transmission in the physical sense of an idea ‘from’ the mind of the experimenter or agent ‘to’ that of the percipient. I contend that the facts can be fully explained by supposing that the familiar law of Association operates, so to say, between minds just as it does within minds. Circumstances cause the agent to associate the idea that is ostensibly transmitted with some other idea, K; if this idea ? is presented to the mind of the percipient, it tends to evoke the first idea in the ordinary way, just as if it had been represented to the agent. In experimental work the part of the idea ? may be played by ‘the idea of the experiment’ if no other is available; but the doctrine of K’s is quite general and any idea may play this part according to circumstances. But if there be no idea telepathy will not occur. Thus the Law of Association may be generalized by saying that if any two ideas are associated together in any mind, and one of them be presented to any other mind, it will tend to evoke the other idea. I find experimentally, that, so far as the data go, the phenomena conform also to the sublaws of Association. The law of Recency leads direct to the phenomena of Displacement described in my first paper; while the results of my sixth experiment, in which various ideas were subjected to varying numbers of events tending to associate them with the idea of the experiment, are in accordance with the law of Repetition. I go on to show that a number of otherwise disconnected experimental observations are all explicable in terms of this same theory, viz., the different time scales in Mr. Soal’s and my own displacement effects, the phenomenon of Indiscriminate Scoring on originals used by a plurality of experimenters; the apparent failure of Dr. Murphy’s experiment; the merits of combined concentration and relaxation on the part of the percipient; the superior results obtained in experiments using a photograph of the setting; and Dr. Rhine’s phenomenon of Terminal Salience [see below, end of this entry]. I then discuss the ‘reality’ of ideas, i.e., of sense and images, to which I give the generic name of ‘psychons,’ and insist that these are, in fact, the only indubitably real existents. From this standpoint I develop the outline of a theory of the mind as consisting solely of psychons linked associationally into a system, which may have subsystems within it and may itself be linked into larger systems; and I propose a Field Theory of Consciousness, according to which consciousness is the system of relations between associated psychons. The Psychon Theory of Mind renders the phenomena of multiple personality, complexes, sentiments, moods, etc., readily comprehensible as manifestations, continuous with each other, of a single principle, while the suggested view of consciousness seems competent to resolve various longstanding difficulties concerning the ‘knower’ and the ‘known,’ acts of cognition, etc. I end this part of my paper by trying to give an indication of the kind of way in which it seems to me that the theories put forward may be linked up with a genuine metaphysic from which physical and psychical laws will be alike derivative. I then consider a few phenomena of psychical research on which the association theory of paranormal cognition, and the views developed therefrom, seem capable of throwing light. The role of the test object in ‘psychometry’ is easily dealt with by a direct application of the doctrine of K’s, though spontaneous cases of telepathy, etc., are somewhat more difficult, as might be expected; but the theory seems perfectly competent to account for their occurrence in principle, though it may be necessary (oddly enough) to invoke a certain measure of coincidence to account for such cases not being commoner than they are. A further application of the theory enables us to explain the localization of haunts, and even such oddities as an apparition which appears to move on a floor no longer there. Finally, I suggest that the views advanced afford the means for surmounting the most crucial difficulty connected with the hypothesis of survival, namely that of stating what it is that survives; and I attempt some adumbration of the kind of way in which the relevant problems may be reviewed, and certain anomalies resolved, by an approach from the theoretical rather than the evidential angle; in particular, I suggest the view that the essential problem is not that of whether some nonphysical mode of being is possible, but of the stability or otherwise of psychon systems under the ‘forces’ which act upon them. I suggest that the most dangerous thing about death is not the prospect of annihilation of the mind at the moment of its occurrence but of disintegration afterwards. In my appendix, I proffer, very tentatively, what appears to be a not manifestly impossible theory of precognition; this, though somewhat fantastic at first sight, is perhaps not more so than is appropriate to the facts it has to explain. See also Wilson, R. [TERMINAL SALIENCE], Journal 33, 1945, p. 132. Offers an explanation for Rhine’s concept of ‘terminal salience’. psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments/theory

West, DJ. A PERCIPIENT’S ACCOUNT OF SOME GUESSING EXPERIMENTS, Journal 33, 1943, pp. 18-22. Describes experiments in which the writer acted as percipient and agent, making guesses and recording the results. The sole aim was a study of the mechanism at work. The paper describes the various methods used and the results obtained, noting ‘curious variations in mode of extra-sensory manifestation, apparently correlated with changes in psychological conditions’. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Soal, S.G. ‘DISPLACEMENT’: SOME COMMENTS ON MR RUSSELL’S PAPER, Journal 33, 1944, pp. 52-4. Comments on a paper on card guessing experiments described in Journal of Parapsychology, June 1943. Soal notes that the phenomenon of displacement where the percipient scores hits on the cards immediately before or after the ‘target’ card, observed by himself and other British researchers, is notable by its absence. He describes various differences in the conditions that may account for this. telepathy/displacement/experiments

Soal, S.G. A NOTE ON NEGATIVE DEVIATION, Journal 33, 1944, pp. 74-6. Draws attention to a negative ‘displacement’ effect in the work of Basil Shackelton mainly with a certain agent, which Soal argues may have a paranormal explanation. telepathy/displacement/experiments

Tyrrell, G.N.M. FURTHER RESEARCH IN EXTRA-SENSORY PERCEPTION, Proceedings 44, 1936, pp. 99-168. Further experiments with the high scoring subject of research reported in Journal 1922, and others, using the ‘pointer’ apparatus described in Journal 1935. The author gives a detailed account of the experiments, with statistical analysis. He describes the emergence of particular methods that led to high scoring. In conclusion, he emphasizes the tendency of critics to demand evidence of ESP as a uniform physical entity and ignore the psychological variables which he considers play a major part. He further concludes that ESP is ‘an unquestionable fact’; that it takes place when simple telepathy is excluded; that there is strong evidence of precognition; that the faculty involves some form of external influence and is not wholly cognitive; that above-chance scoring is associated with short period of mental dissociation. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 29, 1936, pp. 290-92; Journal 30, 1938, pp. 219-27. See also MR TYRRELL’S ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, Journal 31, 1939, pp. 6-8, 25-8. See also PSI-S: Tyrrell, G.N.M. NORMAL AND SUPERNORMAL PERCEPTION, Journal 29, 1935, pp. 3-19. volitional psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments

Tyrrell, G.N.M. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE METHODS OF RESEARCH, Journal 33, 1944, pp. 60-62. Compares traditional research methods with the more recent approach based on statistical experiment. Argues that despite the claimed advantages of the latter, qualitative analysis of the best psychical phenomena available is likely to help grasp the essential processes underlying paranormal phenomena. psi/experiments/methodology/theory

West, D.J. FALLACIES IN A CRITICISM OF ESP ASSESSMENT, Journal 33, 1944, pp. 77-9. Answers a published attack on the statistical basis of Rhine’s ESP experiments, which attempted to show that cards randomly selected by machine could show apparently significant results. West demonstrates that the critic’s figures, ‘despite their superficial impressiveness, show no evidence of any extra-chance effect’, adding ‘The only question is whether they were cited as evidence through an extreme ignorance of statistical method, or in a deliberate attempt to mislead the reader’. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Wilson, A.J.C. THE SENSITIVITY OF CARD-GUESSING EXPERIMENTS, Journal 33, 1944, pp. 91-2. Argues that although the Creery sisters, subjects of an early thought-reading experiment (Proceedings 1, 1882), may have been more gifted than Basil Shackleton in recent experiments (Proceedings 47, 1943), they enjoyed a significant advantage in using a pack of 20 or 50 cards than Shackleton did with only five. The writer gives a mathematical justification for his argument. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 33, 1945, pp. 110-112, 124. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Carington, Whately, and Heywood, Rosalind. SOME POSITIVE RESULTS FROM A GROUP OF SMALL EXPERIMENTS, Proceedings 47, 1944, pp. 229-36. Describes ten experiments with drawings involving a total of 34 different percipients and producing around 5,700 trials. Satisfactory evidence is considered to have been found for the occurrence of paranormal cognition, particularly precognition, with a notable appearance of a decline effect. psi/precognition/experiments

Thouless, Robert H. SOME EXPERIMENTS ON PK EFFECTS IN COIN SPINNING, Proceedings 47, 1945, pp. 277-81. Dice-throwing experiments carried out by the author alone. Instead of tossing the dice, the method adopted was to spin ten coins on their axes and to observe whether they fell heads or tails uppermost. Ten coins were spun with the intention that they should fall heads, then the same coins were again spun with the intention that they should fall tails, and so on until 400 spins had been made. The experiments were carried on for a pre-determined total of 10 evenings spread over a period of two months, giving 4,000 spins in all. There was evidence of terminal salience in the 3rd experiment (p = .02). The combined results yielded a p = .005. PsiLine. psychokinesis/experiments

Thouless, Robert H. FURTHER REMARKS ON SOME EXPERIMENTS ON PK EFFECTS IN COIN SPINNING, Journal 47, 1945, pp. 291-2. The author rebuts a suggestion that positive results in his coin-spinning experiment may have been due to the fact that, before spinning, he unconsciously inclined the coins with the target side uppermost. psychokinesis/experiments

West, Donald J. A CRITICAL SURVEY OF THE AMERICAN PK RESEARCH, Proceedings 47, 1945, pp. 281-90. Review of pioneering American dice-throwing experiments. The author concludes that any faults he has been able to identify are minor, and that the case the experiments make for PK ‘does not seem to be challengeable; it is probably even more clear cut and conclusive than the case for ESP itself. psychokinesis/experiments

Hyde, Dennis H. A REPORT ON SOME ENGLISH PK TRIALS, Proceedings 47, 1945, pp. 293-6. Three dice, thrown from a handshaken cup, were aimed at a specified target face. Over 6000 trials were completed with no significant deviation. Analysis for position effects showed no significant salience. There was an apparently significant variation in scoring rate from left to right across the record sheets, but it was the reverse of the usual decline effect, and it was shown to be due to bias in the dice. Various other statistical tests applied to the data were uniformly negative. PsiLine. psychokinesis/experiments

Parsons, Denys. EXPERIMENTS ON PK WITH INCLINED PLANE AND ROTATING CAGE, Proceedings 47, 1945, pp. 296-300. Describes PK experiments with an inclined plane and semi-mechanical release device, and a rotating cage. Four subjects were tested with the inclined plane and six dice, making 4,608 throws. Sixteen subjects were tested with the rotating cage and two dice, making 5,660 throws.   The results of these 10,268 throws are very close to chance expectation, and psychokinesis was not detected. Parsons also discusses the method of handling cocked dice. PsiLine. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Parsons, Denys. ATTEMPTS TO DETECT CLAIRVOYANCE AND TELEPATHY WITH A MECHANICAL DEVICE, Proceedings 48, 1946, pp. 28-31. A mechanical device for investigating ESP under conditions of clairvoyance and of telepathy is described. No evidence of ESP was found in 24,000 trials with 44 subjects. PsiLine. clairvoyance/telepathy/experiments/methodology

West, D.J. THE POSSIBILITIES OF A BROADCAST ESP EXPERIMENT, Journal 33, 1946, pp. 250-52. Proposes a mass experiment involving thousands of percipients at a time, which would help answer the question of what proportion of the general population possess ESP powers that are demonstrable in statistical experiments. Argues that cards are unsuitable for a broadcast experiment and suggests instead that percipients be asked to describe randomly chosen objects. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

West, D.J. REPORT ON SOME CARD-GUESSING EXPERIMENTS WITH A PROMISING PERCIPIENT, Journal 33, 1946, pp. 267-70. Author’s abstract: Guessing experiments with Zener cards in which Mr F.W. Masham acted as percipient were reported to the Society as having yielded positive results. A long series of card guesses was carried out at the SPR rooms with this percipient, but the results were entirely consistent with the chance hypothesis. clairvoyance/telepathy/experiments

Tyrrell, N.M. THE ‘MODUS OPERAND!’ OF PARANORMAL COGNITION, Proceedings 48, 1947, pp. 65-120. Author’s abstract: The object of this paper is twofold. It is in the first place an attempt to deduce something of the nature of paranormal cognition from an examination of the collected evidence, and secondly to show that the completely controlled type of experiment is misleading if employed alone. The reason for the latter is that experiments in paranormal cognition, if controlled as rigidly as in physical science, and if amenable to statistical treatment, must make use of extremely restricted events, such as cardguessing. Such events serve to demonstrate the existence of paranormal cognition, and to show certain of its minor features, but not to elucidate its nature: they are too devoid of qualitative content. It is here pointed out that by selecting their evidence, workers in the field of statistical experiment have reached erroneous conclusions; and the plea is put forward that theoretical conclusions should not be based on selected evidence but on all the evidence treated impartially. If the material quoted, and its significance, has been dealt with at some length, this is because it was felt that the points arising in an issue of such importance for psychical research must be made abundantly clear. The method of approach here used to the problems of paranormal cognition is different from that now in vogue. It points to the conclusions (1) that paranormal cognition is known to consciousness only by means of an entirely secondary phenomenon, (2) that it is not a faculty akin to sense perception, and (3) that experiment in a neglected field is needed to reveal more of its nature. A suggested experimental program is briefly summarized at the end of the paper. psi/experiments/methodology/theory

Nicol, J. Fraser, and Carington, W. Whately. SOME EXPERIMENTS IN WILLED DIE-THROWING, Proceedings 48, 1947, pp. 164-75. Account of 227 PK runs (throwing for a single die face) called out by Nicol and analyzed by Carington. There were witnessed and unwitnessed runs. Carington concludes: ‘If this work stood alone, it would not be sufficient to warrant the acceptance of so revolutionary an hypothesis as that of psychokinesis; but that, in the light of the work reported by Rhine (and on a smaller scale by others) it may be regarded as highly probable that J.F.N.’s subjects were in fact exerting, sometimes and in relatively low degree, some sort of influence on the fall of the die, though this influence was erratic and uncontrolled, so that it did not in general produce quite the effects desired’ (p. 175). No salience effects were noted.  PsiLine. psychokinesis/experiments

Thouless, R.H. & Wiesner, B.P. THE PSI PROCESSES IN NORMAL AND ‘PARANORMAL’ PSYCHOLOGY, Proceedings 48, 1947, pp. 177-96. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 34, 1948, pp. 249-50, 305-6; Journal 35, 1949, 19-20. psi/experiments/theory

Wilson, R. RANDOM SELECTORS FOR ESP EXPERIMENTS, Proceedings 48, 1947, pp. 213-29. Considers the use of random selectors for experiments in ESP. The fundamental principles upon which the operation of random selectors depends are discussed; selectors devised by previous workers in the field are criticized in the light of these principles; and a new machine which overcomes many of the disadvantages is described. Another machine to this design is being constructed for the SPR Council: it employs a reliable electronic valve circuit to select one of four lamps, though the same type of selector can be designed to select one of any number of lamps. Automatic counting of the scores in an ESP experiment is described, and various precautions against false counts are enumerated. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 34, 1948, pp. 224-5. psi/experiments/methodology

West, DJ.   MASS EXPERIMENTS IN THE PSI COGNITION OF DRAWINGS, Journal 34, 1947, pp. 43-54. Describes largely unsuccessful efforts to confirm the belief of American researchers that latent ESP facilities are widespread. psi/experiments

Thouless, R.H. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 34, 1947, pp. 55-8. Comments on statistical variations in American experiments (Journal of Parapsychology, 1943). psi/experiments/theory

West, DJ. ESP TESTS: A SUMMARY OF RESULTS, Journal 34, 1947, pp. 109-11. Report of negative ESP experiments. psi/experiments

Thouless, R.H. & Scott, C.S.O’D. THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PSYCHICAL RESEARCH GROUP, Journal 34, 1947, pp. 111-7. Brief description of ESP experiments, of which four out of eight showed some significant results. psi/experiments

Anon. PRECOGNITIVE DREAMS AND THE DUNNE EXPERIMENT, Journal 34, 1947, pp. 300-302. Brief record of apparently successful attempts to replicate the experiments of Dunne with precognitive dreaming. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 35, 1949, pp. 43-4, 70-71. precognition/dreams/experiments

Bartlett, M. S. THE STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ‘DISPERSED HITS’ IN CARD-GUESSING EXPERIMENTS, Proceedings 48, 1949, pp. 336-8. Points out that in the Soal and Goldney experiments in precognitive telepathy the ‘dispersed hits’ are not necessarily valid, and require further examination. Bartlett also questions the validity of the analysis of multiply-determined hits. Soal (pp. 339-41) responds that the main criticism does not apply to the precognitive telepathy report published by himself and Goldney in 1943 but does apply to the 1936 work. After a re-analysis, he concludes that neither in the case of Mrs. Stewart nor in that of Shackleton was there any overestimation of the significance level of the 1936 experiments. The case for the ‘multiply-determined’ guesses, however, must be rejected. PsiLine. precognition/experiments/methodology

Scott, Christopher. EXPERIMENTAL OBJECT-READING: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE WORK OF DR. J. HETTINGER, Proceedings 49, 1949, pp. 16-50. Edited author’s abstract: Full analysis of Hettinger’s work on the experimental investigation of object-reading. The first section deals with the work reported in Hettinger’s book The Ultraperceptive Faculty, which attempts to develop objective control methods for demonstrating the existence of a paranormal factor in object-reading material. These methods are closely examined and faults identified both in Hettinger’s use of statistics and in his experimental design. It is shown that when the statistical errors are corrected the results are still highly significant. There remain, however, more than twenty methodological faults any of which might have contributed to the positive results without recourse to the paranormal. The data provided by Hettinger are inadequate to show which of these sources of error, if any, contributed to the significant figure obtained. Concludes that there is insufficient evidence to indicate any paranormal factor at work, and that Hettinger’s technique is far from foolproof. Similar criticisms are made of other aspects of Hettinger’s work. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 35, 1950, p. 220; Journal 39, 1958, pp. 148-9. clairvoyance/telepathy/experiments/methodology

Thouless, R.H. REPORT ON A VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES, Journal 35, 1949, pp. 14-17. Describes a personal visit to the parapsychology laboratory at Duke University, where the author took part in ESP experiments. telepathy/clairvoyance/psychokinesis/experiments

West, DJ. FUTURE RESEARCH: SOME PROBLEMS AWAITING INVESTIGATION, Journal 35, 1949, pp. 36-43. Offers suggestions for potentially promising lines of research: card guessing, dice throwing, visiting new mediums, investigation of hypnosis, trance and dream states, psychic cures, animal psi, anthropological psychism. psi/altered states/experiments

Anon. THE PIDDINGTONS, Journal 35, 1949, pp. 83-5. See also pages 116-9. Comments about a radio broadcast purporting to demonstrate telepathy, but which it is pointed out is highly misleading. MISDIRECTION AND THE MIRACULOUS, Journal 35, 1950, pp. 244-5. telepathy/experiments

Scriven, Michael. A NEW DESIGN FOR A PK EXPERIMENT, Journal 35, 1949, pp. 119-20. Suggests the use of a pendulum for investigating psychokinesis. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

West, DJ. THE PARAPSYCHOLOGY LABORATORY AT DUKE UNIVERSITY, AND THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH, Journal 35, 1950, pp. 165-77. Impressions of the set-up at Duke by an English investigator. He finds evidence of tight controls and ‘considerable divergence in the outlook, methods, and function of the different individuals who make up the Laboratory’. He introduces the leading researchers, including the Rhines, J.G. Pratt, Betty Humphrey, and others. Comments on the ready availability of star ESP performers at Duke. Focuses on the curious success of Duke with PK experiments, unrepeated elsewhere: the author himself achieves ‘highly suggestive’ results in dice throwing. Comments on the atmosphere at Duke and Rhine’s approach to experimentation. Goes on to describe a visit to the ASPR in New York, contacting Gardner Murphy, and others. psi/experiments/methodology

Thouless, Robert H. EXPERIMENTAL PRECOGNITION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS, Journal 35, 1950, pp. 201-10. Argues for a new approach to the idea of precognition. Thouless starts by reviewing the successful methodology adopted at Duke University, which he has himself used with significant results. He critically examines the term ‘precognition’ and discusses the relationship between paranormal precognition and normal psychology. He then proposes the use of the term ‘promethic psi function’ and goes on to investigate what is actually observed in a parapsychological experiment, pointing out the difficulty of distinguishing between precognition and PK. He rejects the view that this implies determinism and concludes that although an explanation is not yet at hand it is at least possible to envisage the kind of explanation that will be forthcoming, given a ‘radical re-orientation of thought’. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 290-93. precognition/experiments/theory

Bateman, F. & Soal, S.G. LONG-DISTANCE EXPERIMENTS IN TELEPATHY, Journal 35, 1950, pp. 257-72. Describes two sets of experiments of long-distance telepathy. The first, between Cambridge and Richmond was a complete failure. The second, between London and Antwerp, achieved highly significant results. telepathy/experiments

West, DJ. ESP PERFORMANCE AND THE EXPANSION-COMPRESSION RATING, Journal 35, 1950, pp. 295-308. Describes the application to ESP subjects of a personality test in which individuals are classified as ‘expansive’ or ‘compressive’. The test was used by Betty Humphrey with experiments in which subjects attempted to reproduce a concealed target picture, with some suggestive findings. The method is repeated by the author with 50 British subjects with generally null results. clairvoyance/personality/experiments

Soal, S.G. THE SHACKLETON EXPERIMENTS; COMMENT ON AN INVESTIGATION BY R.C.READ, Journal 35, 1950, pp. 309-10. Comments on a failed attempt to discover any normal explanation for the author’s highly significant results with an ESP subject. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments

Schmeidler, G. ESP PERFORMANCE AND THE RORSCHACH TEST, Journal 35, 1950, pp. 323-39. Argues that ESP subjects should be sought on the basis of their mood, attitude or worldview, to help develop a technique for predicting or controlling the occurrence of psychic phenomena. The author discusses various methods of personality study: introspection, observations of behaviour, experiments, non-projective tests of personality, and projective tests of personality. She proposes the latter, suggesting the Rorschach test, as the most useful projective test and describes experiments in which this was used with significant results. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 36, 1951, pp. 409-12, 452. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Mundle, C.W.K. THE EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR PK AND PRECOGNITION, Proceedings 49, 1950, pp. 61-78. Asks whether and how researchers can distinguish experimentally between PK and precognition. Mundle begins by considering terms, before turning to the practical considerations such as how convincing evidence of PK can be obtained, with reference to experiments at Duke University. Different methodologies are considered, and the characteristics and advantages compared. He proposes different hypotheses, which variously attribute the paranormal force to PK or precognition. Mundle then turns to the Soal-Goldney experiments with Basil Shackleton, seeking clues in the same regard. He concludes by considering arguments of H.H. Price and the work of Whately Carington. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 36, 1951, pp. 380-83, 412-4. Chari, C.T.K. A NOTE ON PRECOGNITION, Journal 36, 1951, pp. 509-18. Perry, Michael C. IS PK GUIDED BY KNOWLEDGE? Journal 36, 1951, pp. 534-5. psychokinesis/precognition/experiments

Thouless, Robert H. A REPORT ON AN EXPERIMENT IN PSYCHOKINESIS WITH DICE, AND A DISCUSSION ON PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS FAVORING SUCCESS, Proceedings 49, 1951, pp. 107-30. Describes PK tests with the writer as subject, using dice thrown both by hand and by machine. Some series were significant. Thouless also finds evidence for position effects and possible target preference. He discusses the conditions favouring success and failure including motivation, time of day, chronological decline, length of experiment, session length, and the induction of favourable psychological conditions. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 36, 1951, pp. 446-50. psychokinesis/personality/experiments/methodology

West, D.J. DISPERSION OF SCORES IN ESP EXPERIMENTS, Journal 36, 1951, pp. 361-6. Significant results are achieved in experiments with a group of friends. telepathy/clairvoyance/precognition/experiments

Tyrrell, G.N.M. AN EXPERIMENT IN PRECOGNITION, Journal 36, 1951, pp. 366-8. An attempt at a randomised experiment in precognition is made involving a medium, with some significant results. precognition/experiments

Fisk, G.W. HOME-TESTING ESP EXPERIMENTS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT, Journal 36, 1951, pp. 369-70. See also pages 518-20. Negative displacements are found in tests by Society members at home. See also West, D.J. HOME-TESTING ESP EXPERIMENTS: AN EXAMINATION OF DISPLACEMENT EFFECTS, Journal 37, 1953, pp. 14-24. Summary of results, concluding that the experimenter effect is present. Mitchell, A.M.J HOME-TESTING ESP EXPERIMENTS: SPECIAL REPORT ON ONE SERIES OF TESTS, Journal 37, 1953, pp. 155-64. High scoring tests. psi/displacement/experiments

Mundle, C.W.K. SELECTIVITY IN ESP EXPERIMENTS, Journal 36, 1951, pp. 385-93. Discusses the problems raised by the fact that telepathy subjects respond to certain sources of information while ignoring others. telepathy/experiments

Humphrey, Betty M. THE RELATION OF SOME PERSONALITY RATINGS TO ESP SCORES: A REVIEW OF RECENT RESEARCH, Journal 36, 1951, pp. 453-66. Discusses methods of establishing personality characteristics to identify gifted ESP subjects: expansion-compression and interest inventory measures. Concludes that although they have provided methods of predicting subjects ESP scores their use has raised more questions than it has answered. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Fisk, G.W. ESP EXPERIMENTS WITH AN INFANT AS SUBJECT, Journal 36, 1951, pp. 502-4. Brief report of French experiment, of mother-child ESP that yields ‘very curious and successful results’. However cross-channel tests show null results. telepathy/experiments

Fisk, G.W. & West, D.J.   AN ESP EXPERIMENT WITH A DOUBLE TARGET, Journal 36, 1951, p. 520. Brief report of unsuccessful experiment. telepathy/experiments

Holmberg, E.R.R. ESP AND INFORMATION THEORY, Journal 36, 1952, pp. 573-5. Shows how the mathematical theory of information can be applied to ESP experiments. psi/experiments/theory

Richmond, Nigel. TWO SERIES OF PK TESTS ON PARAMECIA, Journal 36, 1952, pp. 577-88. Describes experiments that attempted to influence by thought the direction in which single-celled organisms swim during a selected period, with some significant results. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 37, 1953, pp. 41-2. DMILS/experiments

West, D.J. ESP TESTS WITH PSYCHOTICS, Journal 36, 1952, pp. 619-24. Author’s summary: Three series of tests carried out over the last year are here recorded. The first was exploratory, the second and third were designed to test whether extremely hostile and suspicious attitudes, commonly found in certain types of mental patient, would be conducive to negative scoring. In none of the three series was there found any clear evidence of an ESP effect. Some of the practical difficulties encountered in administering ESP tests to psychotic patients are described. psi/experiments/methodology

Wallwork, S.C. ESP EXPERIMENTS WITH SIMULTANEOUS ELECTRO-ENCEPHALOGRAPHIC RECORDINGS, Journal 36, 1952, pp. 697-701. No significant results are found in experiments attempting to demonstrate a link between ESP calls and the electrical brain activity of the percipient. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Parker-Rhodes, A.F. THE INTERPRETATION OF ESP EXPERIMENTS, Journal 36, 1952, pp. 734-5. Comment on the mathematical control of ESP experiments. psi/experiments/methodology

Fisk, G.W. & Mitchell, A.M.J. ESP EXPERIMENTS WITH CLOCK CARDS: A NEW TECHNIQUE WITH DIFFERENTIAL SCORING, Journal 37, 1953, pp. 1-14. Replaces the hit or miss methodology with one that offers scope for measuring how close to the bulls eye the percipient is able to guess. The assumption is that ESP/PK is not an ‘all-or-nothing’ phenomenon but may sometimes act without producing a direct hit. The experiment uses ‘clock cards’, where the subjects call the hour that is indicated by the hour hand. It is found that the subjects are able more often to guess hours near to where the hand is pointing than those further away. Using a differential scoring technique that takes this into account, higher t (CR) values are obtained than those derived using the usual ‘direct hits only’ method. Mitchell, A.M.J. & Fisk, G.W. THE APPLICATION OF DIFFERENTIAL SCORING METHODS TO PK TESTS, pp. 45-61. Further experiments. ESP EXPERIMENTS WITH CLOCK CARDS: A CORRECTION, p. 95. West, D.J. & Fisk, G.W. A DUAL ESP EXPERIMENT WITH CLOCK CARDS, pp. 185-97. More experiments. psychokinesis/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

West, D.J. HOME-TESTING ESP EXPERIMENTS: AN EXAMINATION OF DISPLACEMENT EFFECTS, Journal 37, 1953, pp. 14-24. Summary of results, concluding that the experimenter effect is present. See also: Fisk, G.W. HOME-TESTING ESP EXPERIMENTS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT, Journal 36, 1951, pp. 369-70, 518-20. Negative displacements are found in tests by Society members at home. Mitchell, A.M.J HOME-TESTING ESP EXPERIMENTS: SPECIAL REPORT ON ONE SERIES OF TESTS, Journal 37, 1953, pp. 155-64. High scoring tests. psi/displacement/experiments

Mitchell, A.M.J HOME-TESTING ESP EXPERIMENTS: SPECIAL REPORT ON ONE SERIES OF TESTS, Journal 37, 1953, pp. 155-64. High scoring tests. See also: Fisk, G.W. HOME-TESTING ESP EXPERIMENTS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT, Journal 36, 1951, pp. 369-70, 518-20. Negative displacements are found in tests by Society members at home. West, D.J. HOME-TESTING ESP EXPERIMENTS: AN EXAMINATION OF DISPLACEMENT EFFECTS, Journal 37, 1953, pp. 14-24. Summary of results, concluding that the experimenter effect is present. psi/displacement/experiments

Thouless, PROBLEMS OF DESIGN IN PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTS, Journal 37, 1954, pp. 299-307. Proposes three essentials for a well-designed experiment: rigidity (that it proves what it sets out to prove); fruitfulness (a favourable atmosphere conducive to success); and economy (avoiding more work than is necessary). psi/experiments/methodology

Mundle, C.W.K. PROBABILITY AND PARAPSYCHOLOGY, Journal 37, 1954, pp. 179-80. Takes issue with the ‘eccentric’ claim by a sceptic, G. Spencer Brown, that the experimental work on ESP has merely established that the mathematical theory of probability, though apparently ‘accurate’ when applied to other material, is not accurate when applied to the material used in such experiments. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 179-80, 209-11, 246-9, 292-4, 355-8. psi/experiments/theory/methodology

West, D.J. EXPERIMENTAL PARAPSYCHOLOGY IN BRITAIN: A SURVEY OF PUBLISHED WORK 1948-53, Journal 37, 1954, pp. 323-247. Review of experimental work on ESP in Britain: ESP experiments with cards and drawings; experiments with mediums; PK research; psychic healing. CORRESPONDENCE, p. 400. West, D.J. PSYCHICAL RESEARCH TODAY, Journal 37, 1954, pp. 348-9. Overview of experimental work. psi/experiments

Oram, A.T. AN EXPERIMENT WITH RANDOM NUMBERS, Journal 37, 1954, p. 369. An experiment is carried out to verify Spencer Brown’s statement that selections from published tables of random numbers can produce statistically significant results similar to those of psychical research. The results are found to be fully in agreement with probability theory. psi/experiments/theory/methodology

Nicol, J. Fraser & Humphrey, Betty M. THE EXPLORATION OF ESP AND HUMAN PERSONALITY, Journal 37, 1954, pp. 307-10. Describes attempts to discover correlations between levels of ESP scoring and personality factors in the mental make-up of the guessers. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Fisk, G.W. & West, D.J. ESP TESTS WITH EROTIC SYMBOLS, Journal 38, 1955, pp. 1-7. A young man acting as percipient in ESP experiments is found to be sexually disturbed and responds more easily to symbols with an erotic content than to standard Zener cards. The experimenter takes advantage of this to achieve significant results. Fisk, G.W. & West, D.J. ESP TESTS WITH EROTIC SYMBOLS: CORRECTIONS, AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS, pp. 134-6. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 46, 1971, pp. 148-9. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

Nicol, J. Fraser. RANDOMNESS: THE BACKGROUND, AND SOME NEW INVESTIGATIONS, Journal 38, 1955, pp. 71-87. Concludes from an examination of specific random numbers tables that they should be used with caution. The author agrees that Spencer Brown’s conjectures are of interest but doubts whether, even if demonstrated to be true, they would materially weaken the case for paranormal cognition. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 38, 1955, pp. 38-43, 136-46, 197-9. psi/experiments/theory/methodology

Langdon-Davies, John and Patricia. ESP EXPERIMENTS WITH MARIA, Journal 38, 1955, pp. 146-9. Impromptu card guessing experiments with three Spanish servants produces high scores. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments

Price, G.R. ‘SCIENCE AND THE SUPERNATURAL’: SUMMARY OF ARTICLE, WITH REPLY BY S.G. SOAL, Journal 38, 1955, pp. 175-84. Summary of an article in which an American medical researcher, well-versed in the literature of parapsychology, dismisses the hypotheses of sensory cures, recording errors, unconscious whispering, etc. advanced by other sceptics and concludes that only cheating adequately explains the significant results achieved by Rhine and Soal. Price argues that in various ways the agent is in collusion with the chief experimenter or with the percipient. In reply, Soal points to the difficulties this hypothesis raises. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 38, 1956, pp. 226-7. psi/experiments/theory

Anon. THE SHACKLETON REPORT: AN ERROR DISCOVERED, Journal 38, 1956, pp. 216-9. An error is discovered, with results suggestive of the experimenter effect. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 341-7. telepathy/clairvoyance/displacement/experiments

Scriven, Michael. NEW EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS FOR PSI RESEARCH, Journal 38, 1956, pp. 231-7. Offers ideas for new experimental research. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 39, 1958, pp. 101-6, 173-8, 252-6. See also SOME THEORETICAL POSSIBILITIES IN PSI RESEARCH, Journal 39, 1957, pp. 78-83. psi/experiments/methodology

Vuurde, W. van. ESP DURING SLEEP?, Journal 38, 1956, pp. 282-3. Suggests an experiment to test the author’s observation that the time he awakes is affected as much by the angle between the hour and minute hands as the time indicated. psi/experiments/methodology

Fisk, G.W. & West, D.J. ESP AND MOOD: REPORT OF A ‘MASS’ EXPERIMENT, Journal 38, 1956, pp. 320- 29. Author’s Summary: It has often been suggested that a happy, care-free atmosphere is conducive to good scoring in ESP tests. This experiment was designed to discover any relationship that might exist between a subject’s ESP score and his mood at the time when he took part in the test. A definitely significant relationship was demonstrated. psi/experiments/methodology

Langdon-Davies, John. WHAT IS THE AGENT’S ROLE IN ESP? A REPORT OF WORK IN PROGRESS, Journal 38, 1956, pp. 329-37. Tests with Eileen Garrett and others produce significant results and lead to certain conclusions: ESP can be elicited in people unsuspected of possessing it; the agent may play an important role; etc. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

West, D.J. & Michie, D. A MASS ESP TEST USING TELEVISION, Journal 39, 1957, pp. 113-33. Viewers in a TV mass ESP experiment are asked to write down which of three images they believe the agent is concentrating on at particular times. Two hypotheses were examined. The hypothesis that there is a small amount of ESP distributed widely through the population was not confirmed. The second, that a small number of people possess high scoring ability, was seemingly confirmed in the case of one individual, who sent in an entry with 15 right guesses out of a possible 19. Subsequent experiments confirmed evidence of ESP, which however varied markedly depending which of two researchers was carrying out the experiment. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 39, 1958, pp. 332-4; Journal 40, 1959, pp. 37-8. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Clarke, P.R.F. THE AVAILABILITY OF PSI FOR RESEARCH, Journal 39, 1957, pp. 139-48. Argues that the availability of raw material upon which to base generalisations about psi can be increased: by using a refined measuring technique capable of picking up slighter effects; by improving the subject’s conscious control of the ability; and by better control of the experimental situation. Proposes a research programme that utilises the techniques and generalisations of the psychologist to improve the experimental supply of psi. Suggests presenting one set of stimuli repeatedly in the hope that the subject will gradually learn them and so improve his score. Similar possibilities are further explored. psi/experiments/methodology

Fisk, G.W. & West, DJ. TOWARDS ACCURATE PREDICTIONS FROM ESP DATA, Journal 39, 1957, pp. 157-62. Experiment in distance telepathy, aimed at furthering recent results in which better scores than usual were obtained by taking the majority opinion of a large number of guessers all aiming at the same target. The objective is to arrange a group test and decide in advance to count only those trial on which a substantial majority of the subjects made the same guess, to produce an accurate forecast of at least some of the target cards. Fourteen subjects that have shown some evidence of ESP ability were tested with twelve clock-face cards. The results were not exactly what was hoped, although the association of particular guesses with particular targets - albeit the wrong targets - suggests that ‘something is happening.’ CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 256-7. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments

Zorab, G. ESP EXPERIMENTS WITH PSYCHOTICS, Journal 39, 1957, pp. 162-4. Failed experiment in card guessing with mental patients in Holland. telepathy/clairvoyance/personality/experiments

Fisk, G.W. & West, DJ. DICE-CASTING EXPERIMENTS WITH A SINGLE SUBJECT, Journal 39, 1957, pp. 277-87. Record of experiments with a high-scoring PK subject. psychokinesis/experiments

Coleman, M.H. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 39, 1958, p. 306. Draws attention to an article by Michael Polanyi in ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHYSIKALISCHE CHEMIE, which may have implications on statistical experiments in general and PK experiments in particular. See also: Coleman, M.H. ORDER FROM RANDOM PROCESSES, Journal 45, 1970, pp. 258-9. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Parsons, Denys. THE MANOR HOUSE EXPERIMENT, Journal 40, 1959, pp. 59-63. Describes an experiment to discover telepathic links between a medium and unknown sitters in another room. The methodology is praised; however the results were insignificant. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Figar, Stepan. THE APPLICATION OF PLETHYSMOGRAPHY TO THE OBJECTIVE STUDY OF SO-CALLED EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION, Journal 40, 1959, pp. 162-72. Describes an attempt to find evidence of telepathy through physiological methods by measuring automatic reactions of the organism. The author uses graphical methods of investigation, by tracing, by means of a current plethysmographical record, the peripheral vascular reactions in the subjects examined. The method was to separate the percipient from the agent, who would multiply sums in his head while activating a machine that would graphically record his mental effort. In a series of 119 experiments with 32 persons, he recorded 44 cases where the percipient, sitting behind a curtain, showed a lowering of the plethysmographic curve that synchronized with the agent’s. The author follows with a discussion of the possibility of the existence of nonspecific impulses in the nervous system, operative at a distance, and of studying these objectively by means of physiological and graphical methods of investigating the vegetative functions of the organism. West, D.J. COMMENT ON DR FIGAR’S PAPER, pp. 172-3. Statistical analysis indicates that the observed coincidences are five times expectation in resting periods and two and a halftimes in the period of mental arithmetic concentration. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 40, 1960, pp. 266-70. DMILS/experiments/methodology

Scott, C. IN SEARCH OF A REPEATABLE EXPERIMENT, Journal 40, 1959, pp. 174-85. Describes a series of experiments undertaken with the aim of establishing a reliable high-scoring method. None was found. The paper briefly sketches the ideas behind the experiments rather than their execution. psi/experiments/methodology

Hansel, C.E.M. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTS WITH MR. BASIL SHACKLETON AND MRS. GLORIA STEWART AS SENSITIVES, Proceedings 53, 1960, pp. 1-42. Critique of the Soal-Goldney experiment which appeared to provide evidence of precognitive telepathy. Hansel argues that the results could have been brought about by trickery, which would have produced certain secondary effects that are in fact found in the data. He does not attempt to identify the exact method of trickery, but argues that, given the incompatibility of precognitive telepathy with established science, such an explanation must be considered the more likely. Soal (pp. 43-82) offers a point-by-point rebuttal, arguing that the methods of substitution proposed by Hansel would have been impracticable and required large-scale collusion by a number of responsible academics. He also disagrees with Hansel about the secondary effects of trickery, which he argues would have been at variance with the actual data. telepathy/precognition/experiments/methodology/cheating

Thouless, R.H. WHERE DOES PARAPSYCHOLOGY GO NEXT?, Journal 40, 1960, pp. 207-19. Reviews the argument of G. Price, that significant ESP results can be attributed to fraud, and suggests ways of countering it. Instead of Price’s suggestion that the experiment be conducted with ESP cards in welded steel containers in front of a jury of strongly unbelieving scientists, Thouless proposes that a pool of high scoring subjects be put at the disposal of sceptics to investigate in a non-antagonistic way. He goes on to discuss ways in which subjects can be made to score at will, demonstrating repeatability. He then turns to the view propagated by Spencer Brown, that high ESP scores may be statistical artefacts of no significance and suggests self-experimentation as a means of getting reliable ESP results. He concludes by affirming the repeated-guessing technique as the best hope of demonstrating psi to sceptics. psi/experiments/methodology/theory

Fisk, G.W. THE RHODES EXPERIMENT BY M.C.MARSH, Journal 40, 1960, pp. 219-39. Precis of findings in South African Phd. dissertation based on experiments in distance ESP. Around 370 subjects, students at Rhodes University, reproduced 17,000 target drawings made 470 miles away in Capetown. Highly significant deviations from chance expectation were recorded compared with a control series. When the subjects were divided into a high-scoring and low-scoring group the former proved to be significantly more extraverted, as measured by the Bernreuter B31 scale. The data also showed several other relationships and trends predicted by the work of previous experiments, although these did not reach statistical significance. A number of other effects were noted. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

Scott, C. & Goldney, K.M. THE JONES BOYS AND THE ULTRASONIC WHISTLE, Journal 40, 1960, pp. 249-60. Examines a suggestion made by a sceptic, Hansel, that two Welsh boys testing successfully for ESP may in fact have signalled to each other using ultrasonic whistles that adults, with somewhat diminished hearing, would not be able to perceive. Initial experiments fail, but subsequently the authors discover a whistle that can be activated by a small bulb worked by the hand, and concealed under clothing. This is shown to be capable of creating the impression of ESP effects without detection. The boys are subsequently retested in a BBC programme, but no significant results are recorded. No conclusion is drawn regarding the boys, but the authors argue that the method is clearly viable and should have been identified earlier. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 40, 1960, p. 272, 320-21, 324. telepathy/experiments/methodology/cheating

Soal, S.G. THE JONES BOYS: THE CASE AGAINST CHEATING, Journal 40, 1960, pp. 291-9. Draws attention to obvious objections to the idea that the Jones boys cheated by using whistles: they were at times separated in different rooms, sometimes without warning; whistles with the required capability were not easily available; codes would need to have been prepared for card guessing experiments they were given without warning; etc. See also: Scott, C. and Goldney, K.M. THE JONES BOYS AND THE ULTRASONIC WHISTLE, Journal 40, 1960, pp. 249-60. telepathy/experiments/methodology/cheating

Scott, C. NOTES ON SOME CRITICISMS OF THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS, Journal 40, 1960, pp. 299-308. Describes investigations into non-psi hypotheses put forward by sceptics to account for the unusually high-scores in the Soal-Goldney experiments with Basil Shackleton. Regarding claims that the experimental controls did not rule out fraud, which could therefore have accounted for the results, Scott demonstrates that the three methods proposed are neither indicated nor contra-indicated by the evidence to any important degree, cannot be tested, or conflict strongly with the evidence. Turning to C.E.M. Hansel’s hypothesis of card substitution, a reconstruction indicated that such a method could theoretically have been employed undetected. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 376-7, 377-81. telepathy/experiments/methodology/cheating

Gooch, S.A. RE-THINKING TO SOME PURPOSE IN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH, Journal 40, 1960, pp. 362-7. Indicates some of the limitations of current quantative research, in particular of classical card-guessing experiments, and suggests modifications and alternatives. Criticises the emphasis given by Rhine to experimental ESP at the expense of spontaneous phenomena, which the author argues has tended to give a distorted view of its nature. Draws attention to the role of emotion in spontaneous phenomena and in the work of mediums, and the need for training. Argues that researchers favouring the experimental method should learn from the approach taken by mediums. Two separate approaches are needed: with repetition sought on the one hand through the experimental method by reproduction of the conditions involved in spontaneous phenomena, and on the other by the subject acquiring volitional control over the faculty. psi/experiments/methodology

Scott, Christopher. MODELS FOR PSI, Proceedings 53, 1961, pp. 195-222. A ‘model’ for psi is an account of how psi operates; it does not explain psi but describes its behaviour. Examples of some possible models are these: (1) Psi occurs intermittently, and when it occurs ensures complete success; (2) When psi occurs it multiplies the probability of success by 2; (3) When psi occurs it gives information only on what the target is not. ESP and PK are themselves examples of general models for psi, one implying that the subject’s calls are influenced by psi towards agreement with a randomizer, the other that the randomizer (die) is influenced by psi towards agreement with the subject’s ‘calls’ (or targets). These and other models can be rigorously discriminated by means of appropriate experimental procedures, described here, which involve only minor changes in the standard ESP experiments. It is suggested that these changes should be introduced into all future ESP experiments, even those conducted for other purposes. Once a generous enough source of psi is available, such an experimental program would give some definite answers to definite questions about psi. PsiLine psi/experiments/methodology/theory

Cutten, J.H. ESPIAR, Journal 41, 1961, pp. 32-41. Describes an instrument aimed at cutting down the time and labour involved in preparing and conducting ESP experiments. psi/experiments/methodology

Beloff, J. & Evans, L. A RADIOACTIVITY TEST OF PSYCHOKINESIS, Journal 41, 1961, pp. 41-6. An attempt is made to investigate the possibility that PK manifests itself more clearly in relation to sub-atomic particles than to macroscopic bodies. Thirty university students are recruited to try to subvert the normal emission of alpha particles from a uranyl nitrite source. Null results are recorded. psychokinesis/physics/experiments/methodology

Huby, P.M. & Wilson, C.W.M. THE EFFECTS OF DRUGS ON ESP ABILITY, Journal 41, 1961, pp. 60-67. An attempt is made to verify findings that amphetamines and barbiturates given to subjects can significantly affect ESP results. The earlier results are not repeated, although some variations from chance level are noted. psi/altered states/experiments/methodology

Sheargold, R.K. EXPERIMENTAL CARD-GUESSING USING MEDIUMS AS PERCIPIENTS, Journal 41, 1961, pp. 67-73. Investigates the ESP abilities of a group of mediums, with the expectation that all or some will score high positive or negative scores against change; a common pattern of guessing might appear; or that the results could be completely featureless. In the event, none of the mediums give truly significant results, although a few score marginally above or below chance expectation. psi/telepathy/experiments/methodology

Olander, A. TELEKINETIC EXPERIMENTS WITH ANNA RASMUSSEN MELLONI, Journal 41, 1961, pp. 184-93. Attempts to observe a spiritualist medium make springs and pendulums move by PK result in failure. psychokinesis/experiments

Ryzl, Milan. TRAINING THE PSI FACULTY BY HYPNOSIS, Journal 41, 1962, pp. 234-52. Gives an examples of clairvoyance experiments the author carried out with a total of 226 subjects, none of whom had claimed to have paranormal experiences before, and yielding a 5% hit rate in the case of men and 16% in the case of women. A detailed description is given of the training of a high scoring subject, who is first hypnotized by normal means, then trained to respond to suggestions around feel and visualizing, before attempting to perceive objects clairvoyantly. Descriptions are also given of how the subject perceives an item he or she has been asked to identify. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 443-5. clairvoyance/hypnosis/experiments

Nash. C.B. & Nash, C.S. COINCIDENT VASOCONSTRICTIONS IN PAIRS OF RESTING SUBJECTS, Journal 41, 1962, pp. 347-50. An attempt at replication fails. See also: Figar, Stepan. THE APPLICATION OF PLETHYSMOGRAPHY TO THE OBJECTIVE STUDY OF SO-CALLED EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION, Journal 40, 1959, pp. 162-72. DMILS/experiments/methodology

Dean, D. THE PLETHYSMOGRAPH AS AN INDICATOR OF ESP, Journal 41, 1962, pp. 351-5. See also: Figar, Stepan. THE APPLICATION OF PLETHYSMOGRAPHY TO THE OBJECTIVE STUDY OF SO-CALLED EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION, Journal 40, 1959, pp. 162-72. DMILS/experiments/methodology

Fisk, G.W. & Pratt, J.G. PARAPSYCHOLOGY IN RUSSIA AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA, Journal 42, 1963, pp. 16-20. A summary of a paper by J.G. Pratt on his visits to leading parapsychologists in Leningrad, Moscow, and Prague. Quotes at length from Pratt’s report on the work of Dr. Milan Ryzl and some joint experiments the two undertook with Pavel Stepanek. PsiLine psi/experiments

Blitz, Monroe. DEPERSONALIZATION AND TELEPATHY, Journal 42, 1963, pp. 33-4. Describes a telepathy experiment conducted through radio and telephone amplifier in which the phenomena of ‘derealization’ and Originating within the percipient’ were used to help effect the basic psi contact. PsiLine. telepathy/experiments

Green, Celia, et al. A NEW USE FOR MASS MEDIA IN PARAPSYCHOLOGY, Journal 42, 1963, pp. 114-24. An account of a mass experiment on ESP conducted by means of a television program. The experiment consisted of a short ESP test and a personality test designed to measure anxiety. Describes the preparations for the experiment, the tests performed, and the results obtained. These are then reviewed in terms of ESP success or failure along with the age, sex, social class, and occupation of the correspondents. None of these comparisons gave significant results, though the retrocognitive score most nearly approached significance. There was also some slight correlation between the ‘non-anxious’ respondents and the retrocognitive score. Characterizes the experiment as essentially exploratory in nature. PsiLine psi/experiments/methodology

Medhurst, R.G. TELEPATHY AND THE DAILY MIRROR, Journal 42, 1964, pp. 325-6. A newspaper promoting a telepathy test erroneously reports the results as positive. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 375-6. telepathy/experiments

Pratt, J.G. PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS WITH A ‘BORROWED’ ESP SUBJECT, Journal 42, 1964, pp. 333-46. Report on experiments with Pavel Stepanek, carried out prior to ‘loaning’ him for research with a sceptical scientist. Although previously an outstanding ESP subject, Stepanek scores at chance levels until the experimental method is to changed to agree with the procedures followed with earlier investigators. Of seven series of tests, five yielded chance results, the sixth was marginally significant, and the seventh produced a total score that would on average be equalled or exceeded in chance data only one time in 250,000. See also: Pratt, J.G. & Blom, Jan G. A CONFIRMATORY EXPERIMENT WITH A ‘BORROWED’ OUTSTANDING ESP SUBJECT, Journal 42, 1964, pp. 381-9. telepathy/experiments

Pratt, J.G. & Blom, Jan G. A CONFIRMATORY EXPERIMENT WITH A ‘BORROWED’ OUTSTANDING ESP SUBJECT, Journal 42, 1964, pp. 381-9. Further experiments with Pavel Stepanek, with a level of statistical significance that ‘shows beyond all reasonable doubt’ that the subject’s calls were influenced by the agent’s choices. See also: Pratt, J.G. PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS WITH A ‘BORROWED’ ESP SUBJECT, Journal 42, 1964, pp. 333-46. telepathy/experiments

Rushton, W.A.H. FINGERTIP SIGHT, FACT OR FICTION, Journal 42, 1964, pp. 410-12. Discusses avenues for the research of fingertip sight. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 99-101, 217-8. experiments/synaesthesia

Brookes-Smith, Colin. AN EXPERIMENT WITH K-OBJECTS, Journal 42, 1964, p. 412. Brief report of an experiment aimed at discovering whether fingerprints on objects play any role in psychometry. First indications are that they do not. clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

Smythies, J.R. & Beloff, John. THE INFLUENCE OF STEREOTACTIC SURGERY ON ESP, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 20-24. Follows up the suggestion that brain injury might provide a favourable condition for testing ESP. This is based on the assumption that ESP may represent some kind of ‘emergency’ mechanism which can take over when our ordinary sensory processes and brain mechanisms are put out of action or happen to be in temporary abeyance. One study reported that cases in hospital suffering from concussion showed significantly greater ESP capacity than two normal control groups. The present study was undertaken to see whether other methods of altering brain function, such as stereotactic surgery for Parkinsonism, might have a similar effect. Describes the subjects and the methods of testing used. No significant results were obtained. PsiLine. psi/altered states/experiments/methodology

Anon. EXPERIMENTS ON A PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLE IN RELATION TO ESP, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 24-6. An interim report by the Psychophysical Research Unit, Oxford. Work is being carried out aimed at establishing a correlation between fluctuations in a subject’s CFF level (critical fusion frequency, the rate at which a point of light that is flickering off and on appears continuous to an observer) and in his score in a card guessing situation. All six subjects thus far studied have scored significantly below chance, one in particular scoring so far below chance as to be significant at the 1 in 1,000 level. Other investigations of the CFF variable in relation to ESP score are being planned. PsiLine. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

West, D.J. ESP THE NEXT STEP, Proceedings 54, 1965, pp. 185-202. Reflects on the problems involved in ESP research, in which successes are sporadic and hard to build on. The absence of experiment repeatable at will has encouraged sceptics to dismiss the phenomenon; however West believes the recorded evidence is too persistent and sometimes of too high a quality to be dismissed. He briefly reviews the history of ESP research, in which apparent break-throughs are followed by failure to confirm or reproduce the initial findings. He refers to nineteenth-century French experiments by hypnotists, and the contrast between the ease with which Gilbert Murray and Oliver Lodge received their highly significant results on the one hand and on the other the relative paucity of the phenomenon emerging from the statistical work of Stuart and Carington. He goes on to consider the card-guessing experiments at Duke University, where promises of a break-through were not fulfilled. The real difficulty, West maintains, is the failure of experimenters to establish any consistent characteristics in ESP. He refers to a suggestion for ESP experiments by Christopher Scott requiring the availability of an accessible high-scoring subject (Proceedings 53, 1961, pp. 195-225). But he doubts whether even a consistent scorer would resolve the problems. West concludes that two points emerge: that under continued scrutiny the phenomenon seems to disappear, and that the experimenter imposes his stamp on the results obtained. This can be compared with psychological phenomena, such as the usefulness of placebos in medicine until either doctor or patience lose their attitude of naïve confidence. There is another parallel in psychoanalysis: West notes the transparent simplicity of the webs of self-deception produced by Freud’s first neurotic patients, compared with the more complex and elaborate defences encountered today. He also points out that the gross hysterical symptoms such as functional paralysis or blindness, common in the nineteenth century, have been replaced by more obscure dyspepsias and cardio-vascular symptoms. If the growth of psychological resistance is behind the decline of ESP, he suggests, experiments with primitive peoples and young children might offer a way forward. Subjects who succeed in statistical experiments, but who do not show evidence of ESP in real life, may be benefiting from the conditions to overcome this resistance. On this reasoning, West suggests the use of techniques ‘that decrease the subject’s awareness of the conflict between extra-sensory impressions and the immediate reality of the senses’ (196). He develops this theme, with references to dream experiments by Douglas Dean and the analysis of spontaneous episodes by Louisa Rhine and Celia Green. psi/methodology/theory

Rollo, Colin. THE GRADING OF SPONTANEOUS CASES, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 159-61. Points out an error in West’s suggestion that spontaneous cases be graded according to ‘goodness’ (susceptibility to explanation without recourse to ESP) as regards sex differences. PsiLine See also:   West, D. J. ESP THE NEXT STEP, Proceedings 54, 1965, pp. 185-202. psi/methodology/theory

Stephenson, CJ. CAMBRIDGE ESP-HYPNOSIS EXPERIMENTS 1958-64, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 77-91. Fifty subjects were tested in six series of ESP experiments involving hypnosis. The following hypotheses have been investigated: (a) ESP receiving ability is improved under hypnosis; (b) ESP receiving ability is related to hypnotisability; and (c) ESP receiving ability can be developed by training or learning under hypnosis. The experiments as a whole do not support any of these hypotheses at a significant level, but there are weak indications that ESP may have been operating in two of the series. PsiLine. psi/experiments/hypnosis

Medhurst, R.G. et al. A LARGE-SCALE EXPERIMENT TO DISCOVER AGENTS AND PERCIPIENTS FOR ESP TESTING, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 109-135. An attempt to find consistently high scoring ESP subjects by appeals in the public media. Of the 1,211 volunteers who returned score sheets (each containing some 400 guesses), 26 scored significantly above chance and were willing to undergo supervised tests. This time, however, the scoring rate was at the chance level. PsiLine. psi/experiments/methodology

Brookes-Smith, Colin. AN EXPERIMENT WITH K-OBJECTS, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 135-42. Report of a preliminary attempt to discover whether the fatty acid traces left on an object by its owner’s fingerprints play any part in psychometry. The initial impulse underlying the experiment, the experimental design, the actual procedure, and the statistical assessment are briefly described. Some notes are also included to suggest improvements in the procedure and also on some ‘survival’ aspects of this preliminary experiment. The results do not support the hypothesis that psychometry is facilitated by using objects retaining fatty acid traces. PsiLine. clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

Green, C.E. THE EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER AND FAMILY SIZE ON EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 181-91. Earlier research indicates the interrelation of extrasensory perception (ESP) and various personality factors. This project was undertaken to discover if certain aspects of childhood experience which affect the later personality also affect ESP. A short test for ESP and a questionnaire on childhood incorporating questions on birth order and family size were printed in a ‘glossy’ magazine and a national daily paper. Among 756 magazine readers, those who had been only, eldest, or younger children obtained ‘post-cognitive’ ESP scores that differed significantly from one another, and there was some variation of ‘post-cognitive’ ESP scores with family size. No significant results emerged from the 5,374 replies of the newspaper population. Socioeconomic factors may explain the difference between the two populations. PsiLine. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Edmunds, S. & Jolliffe, D. A GESP EXPERIMENT WITH FOUR HYPNOTIZED SUBJECTS, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 192-204. An experiment designed to generate ESP by means of hypnosis. Describes the subjects, their degree of hypnotisability, and the experimental set-up. Results were disappointing, both the hypnotized and ‘awake’ totals approximating closely to chance expectation. psi/hypnosis/experiments

Garnett, A. Campbell. DID SHACKLETON DEMONSTRATE PRECOGNITION?, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 195-200. It has been argued that the results of Soal and Goldney’s experiments with Basil Shackleton cannot be explained as due to any combination of clairvoyance and telepathy but require us to recognize the operation of precognition. Two main reasons for this opinion are (1) that in those parts of the experiment designed to test his capacity for clairvoyance Shackleton’s score did not rise significantly above chance; (2) that in that part of the test in which Mrs. Goldney used counters and presented them at double the usual rate there was, at the instant when Shackleton wrote down his guess, no cue in existence to which his guess could be either a clairvoyant or a telepathic response. The author holds that both of these objections are open to question and that the results obtained can be explained without recourse to precognition. Argues, against the first, that Shackleton’s main interest was to predict, and that he, in effect, subconsciously scuttled the clairvoyance tests because he knew that his success would undermine his whole claim to precognition. Argues, against the second, that the experimental set-up was such as to allow for a clairvoyant response even in those situations thought by the experimenters to be incompatible with an explanation in terms of clairvoyance. Concludes that neither the experiment as a whole, nor any part of it, can be claimed to constitute a demonstration of precognition. PsiLine. psi/precognition/clairvoyance/experiments

Soal, S.G. et al. DID SHACKLETON DEMONSTRATE PRECOGNITION, Journal 43, 1966, pp. 250-51. Argues that Garnett’s thesis that Shackleton could have achieved his displacement effects by means of clairvoyance alone, without any precognition of a future content of the agent’s mind is ingenious but only a guess. Finds, on the contrary, many indications that displacement in time, either into the future or into the past, was the peculiar mode in which Shackleton’s ESP faculty worked in conjunction with a certain type of agent. (Correction, p. 333). PsiLine See also: Garnett, A. Campbell. DID SHACKLETON DEMONSTRATE PRECOGNITION?, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 195-200. Garnett, A. Campbell. REPLY TO DR. SOAL, pp. 251-2. Admits that Soal’s remarks somewhat weaken his contention that Shackleton was unconsciously using clairvoyance to demonstrate precognition, but argues that a case can still be made because of the time lapse between the signal and the instant when Shackleton made his guess. This time lapse, he argues, presents a very definite possibility that the results were due to clairvoyance rather than precognition. PsiLine Soal, S.G. p. 252. Agrees that clairvoyance is a possible explanation for the forward displacement effect and that precognition could not be demonstrated without much more elaborate apparatus and electronic timing arrangements. The most the author would claim for these experiments is that there was a displacement of Shackleton’s correct guesses onto adjacent target cards. Further, this phenomenon was obtained as far back as 1936 using an entirely different experimental set-up and with several agents. PsiLine. telepathy/clairvoyance/precognition/displacement/experiments

Rollo, Colin. THOMAS BAYES AND THE BUNDLE OF STICKS, Proceedings 55, 1966, pp. 23-64. Author’s abstract: The intentions of this paper are (1) to examine the validity of combining many pieces of imperfect evidence so as to strengthen the total evidence in favour of some psi-hypothesis; (2) to make clear the assumptions which are entailed by accepting or rejecting the validity of such a procedure; and (3) to indicate certain problems of estimation which require solution or agreement before any final verdict can be given. Attention is concentrated on testimony concerning alleged spontaneous psi experiences, and no reference is made to other fields (e.g. evaluation of experimental results) in which a technique suggested might in practice be easier to apply. It is not the purpose of this paper to attempt any assessment of the actual evidence available. A numerical example is given to illustrate the power of the method suggested, but no support is implied for the specific assumptions leading to any particular result. psi/experiments/methodology/theory

Broad, C.D. THOMAS BAYES AND THE BUNDLE OF STICKS, Journal 44, 1968, pp. 316-7. Corrects an error in an article by Broad in a book edited by Colin Rollo. psi/experiments/methodology/theory

Beloff, John & Mandleberg, Ian. AN ATTEMPTED VALIDATION OF THE ‘RYZL TECHNIQUE’ FOR TRAINING ESP SUBJECTS, Journal 43, 1966, pp. 229-49. An attempt to validate the so-called ‘Ryzl technique’ for developing a dependable level of ESP ability in an ordinary volunteer subject. Describes the technique, the experiment used to test it, and the results obtained. No progressive trends of any kind were anywhere discernible in the results and not one subject emerged with even a rudimentary skill in the use of ESP. Some evidence, however, emerged from the experiment that suggests to the authors that ESP may have been operative at various times in the course of the investigation. Concludes that further work in this direction is warranted. PsiLine. psi/experiments/methodology

Green, C.E. EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION AND THE MAUDSLEY PERSONALITY INVENTORY, Journal 43, 1966, pp. 285-6. [Author’s abstract alone published here]. Forty Oxford University undergraduates, tested individually, were the subjects in this experiment. Each subject was first given a GESP test consisting of 100 Zener cards. Only two symbols were used (‘star’ and ‘cross’), so the series were binary ones. The GESP test was followed by administration of the MPI. Only one (‘direct’) score was extracted for each subject. Subjects were then divided into ‘above chance scorers’ (those who made 51 or more correct guesses) and ‘below chance scorers’ (those who made 49 or fewer correct guesses). The mean extraversion scores of these two groups were then compared by means of the test. No significant difference emerged between the two groups. Similarly, the mean neuroticism scores of the two groups did not differ significantly from each other. A second analysis was performed which included only those who scored 56 or more hits in the ‘above chance’ group, and only those who scored 44 or less in the ‘below chance’ group. On the neuroticism dimension these two groups now showed a marginally significant difference. The mean N-score for the ‘above chance’ group was 26.89, while the mean N-score for the ‘below chance’ group was 16.80 (V = 66.76, t = 2.21, 0.02 < ? < 0.05, for a one tailed test). In view of the smallness of the numbers involved (N = 9 in the former group, and N = 5 in the latter), and the fact that no prediction was made as to the direction of the difference that might be found, it may be doubted whether any significance is to be attached to this finding. It is at least worthy of note, however, that the difference was in the direction opposite to that which has been observed by other experimenters. Further work with the MPI is being planned. PsiLine. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Green, C.E. BIRTH ORDER, FAMILY SIZE AND EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION, Journal 43, 1966, pp. 284-5. Concerns the absolute scores of the various groups discriminated according to the criteria described in the earlier paper. Cites the revised p-values when the results were corrected for multiple analysis. The group score of the eldest children becomes .01 (it had been .001). The group score of families of two, which had been .01, is no longer significant. The only children had an insignificant negative deviation. PsiLine Green, C.E. THE EFFECT OF BIRTH ORDER AND FAMILY SIZE ON EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 181-91. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Macaulife, N.P. HYPNOSIS AND ESP, Journal 43, 1966, pp. 326-7. Suggests that Edmunds and Joliffe (Edmunds, Simeon and Jolliffe, David. A GESP EXPERIMENT WITH FOUR HYPNOTIZED SUBJECTS, Journal 43, 1965, pp. 192-4) did not obtain significant results because the wording of the suggestions given to the subjects only served to restore the inhibitions of the waking state. Suggests that the authors repeat the experiment using a method more in line with that used by M. Ryzl [PsiLine: 00825]. PsiLine. psi/hypnosis/experiments

Green, C.E. EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION AND THE EXTRAVERSION SCALE OF THE MAUDSLEY PERSONALITY INVENTORY, Journal 43, 1966, p. 337. [Author’s abstract, alone published here.] 108 subjects were used in this experiment, and they were tested in three different groups (Nl = 37, N2 = 22, N3 = 49). The ESP test in each case consisted of a binary random series of 30 Zener symbols (‘star’ or ‘cross’). The questionnaire consisted of the 24 ?-scale questions of the MPI. Three ESP scores (0), (+1) and (1) were extracted for each subject. In none of these positions was a significant difference found between the mean ?-scores of above and below chance scorers. Likewise, no significant difference was found in any of these 3 positions between the mean ?-scores of ‘chance’ scorers (those who obtained from 13 to 17 ‘hits’) and ‘away from chance’ scorers (those who scored more than 17 or less than 13 ‘hits’). The failure to find any correlation between ?-score and ESP score in this work may simply have been due to the fact that ESP was not operating on any of the three occasions, since neither collectively nor individually did the three groups’ overall ESP scores deviate significantly from chance expectation. Further work is being undertaken, making use of the MPI in its entirety, and testing the subjects individually rather than in groups. PsiLine psi/personality/experiments/methdology

Thouless, Robert, H. THE PICTURE COMPLETION TEST FOR ESP, Journal 43, 1966, pp. 422-7. The aim of this experiment was to devise a means of testing ESP which would be more interesting to experimental subjects than the traditional activity of card guessing and which should produce a consistently good level of scoring. Describes the method of experiment designed and tabulates the results obtained. The experiment seems to have succeeded in the first object; experimental subjects reported that they found the task an interesting one. The experiment, however, failed in the second object; no consistently high level of scoring was obtained, nor was there any marginally significant excess (or deficiency) of right responses. This may indicate the wrongness of the initial expectation that a more interesting and creative test of ESP would lead to higher scoring, or it may indicate some deficiency in either the experimenter or the test material itself. Further tests, suitably modified, may help to determine which of these possibilities is the more likely. PsiLine. psi/experiments/methodology

Dean, E. Douglas & Nash, Carroll B. COINCIDENT PLETHYSMOGRAPHY RESULTS UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS, Journal 44, 1967, pp. 1-14. An account of an experiment to see whether vasoconstriction responses on the part of a subject would coincide with stimulations given to an agent in an adjacent room with all normal means of communication blocked. Reviews the literature on extrasensory stimulation of physiological responses and describes the method used in this particular experiment. The results confirm earlier report that an agent looking at targets of names can stimulate more and larger plethysmograph responses than normal in a percipient in an adjoining room. The reported effect was, in this case, transferred to a new laboratory, with a new subject, under controlled conditions with an observer present, and with an independent experimenter controlling the double blind method used to assess the results. Concludes that the plethysmograph can be used to measure the psi effect if emotionally laden stimuli are used and if inhibitory factors of an emotional and physiological nature are absent. PsiLine. DMILS/experiments

LeShan, Lawrence. A ‘SPONTANEOUS’ PSYCHOMETRY EXPERIMENT WITH MRS. EILEEN GARRETT, Journal 44, 1967, pp. 14-19. An account of an experiment with Mrs. Garrett in which she was presented with three identical boxes containing a lock of hair from the experimenter’s daughter, a tuft of hair from the tail of a neighbour’s dog, and a rosebud from the experimenter’s garden. The medium was allowed to see the contents and was told what they were, although the boxes were presented to her out of sight and in an order determined by random number tables. She accurately divined the contents of each box, adding information in each case that was considered appropriate. Some of this information was extremely precise; some was unknown to the experimenter. PsiLine. spontaneous psi/clairvoyance/experiments

Green, C.E. A NEW APPLICATION OF ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES TO THE STUDY OF EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION, Journal 44, 1967, pp. 51-2. [Author’s abstract, alone published here]. The most urgent need in parapsychology is for a repeatable experiment. It is argued that the reason why this has not yet been achieved is because we do not yet know what are the conditions that favour ESP’s occurrence. The hypothesis is put forward that the crucial condition is the psychological state of the subject at the time of attempting ESP. A method of determining this state in objective terms is proposed: this consists of taking one or more continuous physiological variables (e.g. a rhythm frequency) and attempting a statistical correlation of this variable with the ESP variable measured in terms of degree of success at a card guessing task, for instance. Data illustrative of this method are presented: the variable concerned is the subject’s CFF. The results are in line with the prediction made (that a positive correlation will be found between degree of ESP success and CFF), but failed to reach statistical significance. It is hoped, nevertheless, that the data may serve to illustrate a new use for electrophysiological apparatus in the study of ESP, and that this approach may be adopted by other workers in the field: hitherto such apparatus has only been used as an indicator of ESP a procedure which, though valid in itself as a way of registering unverbalizable ESP responses, does not advance our knowledge of the conditions under which ESP takes place. PsiLine. psi/experiments/methodology

Eysenck, HJ.   PERSONALITY AND EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION, Journal 44, 1967, pp. 55-71. (1) The hypothesis has been deduced from facts and theories in the general psychology, personality theory, and the body of knowledge comprising ESP research, that introverts would make relatively poor psi subjects, while extraverts would make relatively good psi subjects. (2) A survey of the literature showed surprising agreement on the better performance of extraverted subjects as compared with introverted subjects on GESP tests. (3) It was argued that for a proper understanding of the relation between psi performance and personality it would be necessary to apply standard psychometric methods to psi scores; in particular the absence of any knowledge regarding the reliability of these scores was deplored. (4) It was argued that experimental studies varying the arousal level of subjects would give additional information of great interest to the general hypothesis advanced, and it was suggested that such studies would require the inclusion of personality inventories, as personality traits such as extraversion and emotionality would act as modifier variables. (5) It was suggested that the search for evidence in favour of the existence of ESP had concentrated too much on differences from chance of mean or average scores, and that alternative statistical methods were available which might in fact show significance even where traditional methods had failed to find any significance. PsiLine. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Pratt, J.G. A COMPUTER PROGRAMME FOR ESP GROUP TESTS, Journal 44, 1967, pp. 71-82. The aim of this study was to develop a procedure that could be broadly applied in ESP experiments in which the data could be collected in a suitable form for immediate computer processing. A simple computer program is used for the preparation of ESP targets by instructing the machine to generate a pseudo-random order often digits. These are then converted to a random sequence of the digits 15 that are punched on IBM cards in groups of 25 digits. Each such target card is identified by a serial number. Subjects attempt, in the ESP test, to punch digits on special response cards to match those on a designated concealed target card. The target cards and subjects’ response cards are then processed through the computer with the main program, which provides for analysing and evaluating the ESP data and other information recorded by the subjects in a variety of ways and for printing out the results. PsiLine psi/experiments/methodology

Beloff, John, and Mandleberg, Ian. AN ATTEMPTED VALIDATION OF THE ‘WAITING TECHNIQUE’, Journal 44, 1967, pp. 82-8. A second attempt to induce the type of mental preparation most conducive to successful ESP performance. In a previous study the authors described a project they had undertaken to validate the ‘Ryzl technique’ for training ESP (see Journal 43, 1966, pp. 229-50). The disappointing outcome of this project caused them to consider alternative approaches to the training problem, the one finally decided upon being the so-called ‘waiting technique’ described by Rhea White (see Journal ASPR, 58, 1964, pp. 21-56). The results of this project, however, turned out to be no more successful than the first. PsiLine. psi/experiments/methodology

Williams, D.O. MOTION AND ESP, Journal 44, 1967, pp. 102-3. Proposes that ESP may be improved if the percipient and the agent or the clairvoyance targets are in relative motion. PsiLine. psi/experiments/methodology

Green, C.E. EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION AND THE MAUDSLEY PERSONALITY INVENTORY: AN EXPERIMENT USING 259 UNIVERSITY STUDENTS, Journal 44, 1967, pp. 104-5. [Author’s abstract only]. A GESP test was administered to a group of 259 University undergraduates. The target series consisted of a binary random sequence of 100 Zener symbols (‘star’ and ‘cross’). A significant negative deviation of the overall group score from chance expectation was observed in the (+1) position. The observed deviation from chance was 2.66 times the binomial standard deviation, and thus corresponded to a p-value of less than 0.01. This value must be multiplied by a factor of 3 to allow for three possible scoring positions having been taken into account, but after having been so multiplied it is still significant at the 0.05 level (0.01 < ? < 0.03). A difference also emerged in the (+1) position between the average Neuroticism score (as measured by the MPI) of those who scored at least 59/96 correct (+1) guesses and those who scored at most 37/96 correct (+1) guesses. The mean N-score of the first group was 35.00, while the mean N-score of the second group was 25.56. This difference is not significant when assessed by means of the test; there were only four subjects in the first group and nine subjects in the second group. However, the observed difference is in the same direction as that found in an earlier experiment [PsiLine: 12919]. When the four runs of 25 guesses are considered in temporal sequence, there is apparent a consistent decline in the magnitude of the deviation from chance of the overall score. PsiLine. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Haddox, Victor G.   GROUP HYPNOSIS AND TRAINING FOR ESP, Journal 44, 1967, pp. 105-6. [Author’s abstract only]. This study was undertaken with the assumption as a working hypothesis that the lengthy association of ESP and hypnosis is valid. The training method was patterned after Milan Ryzl’s technique [PsiLine: 00825, 02278] except that a group of subjects were placed simultaneously in a trance rather than one individual. Trance induction was initiated using ideomotor techniques with visual fixation and later, imagery. Procedures for deepening hypnosis were employed for approximately one hour. Trance depths sufficient to produce positive and negative hallucinations in both visual and auditory senses were achieved. Training for ESP began after this trance stage was reached. The subjects were induced to ‘dream’ with eyes closed, of an object placed in front of them. They were asked to ‘visualize’ the object and were guided by the investigator in this task, even to mentally picking up the object while still in hypnosis. The subjects then gave their impressions, quite frequently with a discussion amongst themselves. If incorrect, they were immediately corrected by the observer. Following this, they opened their eyes, looked at the object, closed their eyes and again visualized the object. Three to four objects were used during each session. Direct suggestions that the state of hypnosis would produce clairvoyance were not given. While still in a trance state, the subjects were tested for ability to use ESP to visualize correctly an IBM card which was prepared by the computer programme described by Dr. J.G. Pratt in this issue of the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. They recorded their impressions directly to the IBM Port-A-Punch cards, which were later analysed by the computer. Duplicate response cards made it possible for the subjects to know their scores immediately following cessation of the trance state. At the end of a three month period of weekly training sessions, none of the statistical measures applied showed any improvement in ESP performance which was limited to clairvoyance by the experimental procedure. Four subjects completed the training and testing sessions. An additional two subjects dropped out after six weeks of training (also evaluated). Forty-nine IBM cards were used, giving a total of 1225 individual targets for each subject who completed the study. Thus the hypothesis that one or more individuals in a group of subjects placed simultaneously in a hypnotic trance could be taught to differentiate between veridical and false imagined visual impressions of an object which they did not see, was not confirmed. It is obvious that the conditions in the present study were not identical to those used by Dr. Ryzl. It is not possible, therefore, to draw any conclusions from the failure of the present effort that bear adversely upon Dr. Ryzl’s claims. The present results, taken together with the unsuccessful attempts of other investigators, do suggest that the problem is a complex one probably to a greater degree than even Dr. Ryzl himself originally recognized. PsiLine. clairvoyance/hypnosis/experiments/methodology

Klip, Willem. AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH TO THE INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM THEORY, Journal 44, 1967, pp. 181-7. Points out how parapsychologists could help physicists by aiding in the solution of the interpretation of quantum theory by providing reliable subjects such as Basil Shackleton and Gloria Stewart to carry out an experiment which is described in some detail in this paper. Also discussed is the evaluation of the results. PsiLine. psi/experiments/physics

Snow, C.I. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXPERIMENTER IN ESP TESTS, Journal 44, 1967, pp. 209-10. Proposes that the experimenter be treated as an experimental variable in psi research and that the attitudes and emotions of the experimenter be made a matter of record and be subjected to analysis. It also might be helpful to try to exclude the experimenter as much as possible. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE,, pp. 315-6, 426. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Medhurst, R.G. THE FRAUDULENT EXPERIMENTER: PROFESSOR HANSEL’S CASE AGAINST PSYCHICAL RESEARCH, Journal 44, 1968, pp. 217-32. A detailed review of C.E.M. Hansel’s Esp: A Scientific Evaluation (1966) and a privately published reply by S.G. Soal. Examines Hansel’s strictures on the Pearce-Pratt series, the Pratt-Woodruff experiment, and Soal’s tests with Basil Shackleton and Gloria Stewart. Finds that some of these criticisms cannot be easily brushed aside, though the bulk depend upon convenient omission, innuendo, and inaccurate material. Other parts of the book especially the chapters on spiritualism and mental mediumship are so shallow and misinformed as to be almost ludicrous. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, 299-313, 422-4; Journal 45, 1969, pp. 91-2. book review/psi/experiments/methodology

Wadhams, P. & Farrelly, B.A. THE INVESTIGATION OF PSYCHOKINESIS USING a-PARTICLES, Journal 44, 1968, pp. 281-9. An attempt to detect the existence of psychokinesis by having the experimenters deflect or stop electrons from entering a Geiger Muller tube. Describes and discusses the experimental arrangement, the procedures used and the results obtained. No deflection of any significance was detected, though the apparatus used was capable of registering a very small effect. Concludes that the method employed is a very sensitive one and should be tried with people who are thought to possess more remarkable psychic powers. PsiLine. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Littlewood, J.E. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS IN CARD-GUESSING, Journal 44, 1968, pp. 321-6. Presents a method of statistical analysis for card-guessing experiments in which a different notation is used for successful experiments. PsiLine. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

Recordon, E.G., Stratton, F.J.M. & Peters, R.A. SOME TRIALS IN A CASE OF ALLEGED TELEPATHY, Journal 44, 1968, pp. 390-99. Trials have been carried out by telephone communication and recorded on magnetic recording tape of a case of alleged telepathy between a mother and her son, a spastic subject. The distance between the telephones has varied from 0.59 to 9.7 kilometres. One such trial is recorded in detail in this paper. Letters or numbers were presented to the mother and the replies of the son were recorded, as well as the mother’s remarks. Over 30% of the letters or numbers were guessed correctly the first time. Of the two possibilities that an unconscious code or telepathy is in operation, the writers incline to the view that it is a case of telepathy. PsiLine. telepathy/experiments

Heywood, R. & Landau, L. EXPERIMENTS WITH IDENTICAL TWINS, Journal 44, 1968, pp. 417-22. Points out the conditions of the experiment that did not favour psi. psi/experiments/methodology

Campbell, Anthony. ‘TREATMENT’ OF TUMOURS BY PK, Journal 44, 1968, p. 428. A Chilean experimenter claims success in retarding the growth of tumours in rats by PK. healing/DMILS/psychokinesis/experiments

Beloff, John. THE ‘SWEETHEARTS’ EXPERIMENT, Journal 45, 1969, pp. 1-7. It is a common assumption that telepathy, if it exists, is more likely to occur between individuals who are emotionally linked to one another than between two unrelated individuals. Although the primary objective in this investigation was to find promising ESP subjects using the newly built Edinburgh Electronic ESP Tester, the author decided that, at the same time, he would test this hypothesis and in so doing enhance the psychological interest of the task. The relationship he chose to study was that which holds between two young people who consider themselves to be in love with one another. Twenty couples were selected and each individual had to do 5 runs, giving a total of 200 runs or 5,000 guesses on which results could be based. The results showed that mutual attraction between two people is not sufficient to insure telepathic rapport in the guessing situation described. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 45, 1970, pp. 427-8. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Beloff, John, and Regan, Timothy. THE EDINBURGH ELECTRONIC ESP TESTER (E.E.E.T.), Journal 45, 1969, pp. 7-13. A description of the Edinburgh Electronic ESP Tester, which was built for the Department of Psychology of the University of Edinburgh. The components and manner of working of the apparatus are considered, along with the questions of how foolproof is the machine against cheating and how reliable is the randomising principle around which the E.E.E.T. is designed. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 45, 1970, pp. 253-7, 367-8; Journal 46, 1971, pp. 76-7. psi/experiments/methodology

Brodbeck, T.J. ESP AND PERSONALITY, Journal 45, 1969, pp. 31-2. The aim of this GESP group card guessing experiment was to find evidence in support of the relations found in the past between card score and (a) sheep/goat attitudes, (b) birth order, and (c) extraversion. Three scoring directions were checked. (0, +1, 1). The reliability of the scores was computed, and also, since one of the characteristic differences between extraverts and introverts is the greater variability of the extravert, the reliability of introverts and extraverts was compared. After a talk, the 34 subjects, mostly undergraduates, made four runs of 25 guesses at randomised Zener cards looked at by an agent in a separate room. Synchronization was by intercom. Subjects also completed an E.P.I. (Form B) and answered a questionnaire. No significant results were found in either the 0 or the 1 scoring directions. The results in the +1 direction only are quoted in the accompanying table and accordingly the p-values have been trebled. While the experiment generally gave non-significant results it is perhaps worth noting (a) The correlation with N is in the same direction as observed by Green, (b) The ‘introverts’ show a better reliability than the ‘extraverts.’ PsiLine. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Medhurst, R.G. NOTE ON THE ‘ESP’ CARDS DESIGNED IN THE PARAPSYCHOLOGY LABORATORY, DUKE UNIVERSITY, Journal 45, 1969, pp. 81-5. A brief review of the historical position with regard to the reliability of ESP cards for experimental work. Summarizes the problems in using so-called ‘Zener cards’ for experimental purposes, finding that no version of the cards presently in use is proof against seeing their backs under certain conditions. It appears to the author astonishing that the defect has not been remedied since it was first pointed out in 1937. PsiLine Thouless, R. H. ESP CARDS, pp. 187-8. Since Mr. Medhurst was kind enough to mention that I was one of the first to point out that the symbol on some of the early ESP cards could be seen when light was reflected from the back, I feel somewhat concerned with the implications of his note on the subject in the June Journal. When I found out that the figures on ESP cards could be identified from the back, I reported the fact to J.B. Rhine and he told me that his laboratory had already adopted the rule that, for crucial experiments on ESP the backs of cards used must not be seen by experimental subjects. That seemed (and still seems) to me a sufficient answer to any doubts raised by the imperfection of the cards.   It is also, of course, the case that, about this time, techniques of experimenting were being adopted (such as ‘down through’calling) in which neither subject nor experimenter saw the backs of the cards till all calls were completed. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 187-8; Journal 45, 1970, 312-4. psi/experiments/methodology

Dalton, G.F. HUMAN TARGETS IN ESP EXPERIMENTS, Journal 45, 1969, pp. 139-41. Outlines several possible ESP experiments in which persons are substituted for things as targets. PsiLine. psi/experiments/methodology

Zorab, G. EXPERIMENTS IN EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION IN CONNECTION WITH A SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION, Journal 45, 1970, pp. 211-20. To enlarge the present knowledge of the range of ESP, the case of a sensitive, Kitty Voorzanger, is presented. The subject, untrained in chemistry and biology and with a primary school education, indicated to a bacteriologist, A.G. Augier, what substance he had to seek to discover and prepare a remedy against paradentium diseases. At points when he was stuck in his investigations, he consulted Voorzanger. Her information not only directed attention to the necessary substance of 5 experimental substances, two years prior to experimentation, but also to an unusual manufacturing process. To provoke ideas about the limits of paranormal cognition, the clairvoyant’s predictions related to events in Zorab’s life, some fulfilled whereas others await fulfillment, are also reported. PsiLine. clairvoyance/experiments

Coleman, M.H. ORDER FROM RANDOM PROCESSES, Journal 45, 1970, pp. 258-9. Points to other experiments that support the approach sugested by Polanyi (Coleman, M.H. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 39, 1958, p. 306.) ‘If random processes can lead to some form of hyper-regularity, as Polanyi has demonstrated theoretically, and Moore and Brown have shown experimentally, then ESP experiments would seem to me to be explicable on similar lines’. psychokinesis/experiments/theory

Brookes-Smith, C. & Hunt, D.W. SOME EXPERIMENTS IN PSYCHOKINESIS, Journal 45, 1970, pp. 265-81. The procedures followed in a series of attempts to produce physical phenomena were based on the belief that ordinary individuals not just specially gifted mediums can bring about such phenomena provided they acquire certain favourable psychological skills. The experimenters also attempted to instrument some of the sittings in the hope that quantitative measurements could be provided to replace human testimony as the criterion for paranormality in such cases. There were four sitters in most of the sessions. In several series of sittings (some in full light and some in red light) the following phenomena were reported: rappings, violent table movements and lévitations, movement of a chair without contact, spilled liquids, and the lighting of a lamp apparatus activated, at some distance, in response to a command or an unspoken thought. The main recording device was a specially built skotograph with connected amplifier and oscillograph. This device was intended to record on continuously moving film any Occultations’ or physical force that were produced. No unambiguous imprintations were obtained with this instrument, however. It was concluded that the best hope for demonstrating repeatable and controllable telekinetic phenomena lies in developing the lamp apparatus. PsiLine psychokinesis/experiments

Randall, J.L. AN ATTEMPT TO DETECT PSI EFFECTS WITH PROTOZOA, Journal 45, 1970, pp. 294-6. The design of this experiment was similar to that of Nigel Richmond. An attempt was made to ‘will’ the microscopic animal Stylonychia to swim in a chosen direction under the microscope. The field of view was divided into four quadrants, and a target quadrant was chosen by turning up a card from a pack of 40 cards containing four symbols, each symbol representing a quadrant. A neon light timing device was used giving 15 seconds in which to concentrate on the target quadrant. The experiments were conducted in runs of 20, alternate runs being controls in which the cards were not turned up until the end of the run. Of 280 willed trials, 72 were hits (MCE = 70); and of the 280 controls, 75 were hits.   The experiment thus gave no indication of a psi effect. PsiLine DMILS/experiments

Beloff, J. & Bate, D.   RESEARCH REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1968-69. UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH PARAPSYCHOLOGY UNIT, Journal 45, 1970, pp. 297-301. In the academic year 1968-1969, the Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, completed three main investigations and a number of minor ones. Only the former are discussed in this report. The first, experiments with the Edinburgh Electronic ESP Tester (EEET), yielded null results as did the second, A GSRESP Experiment. The third, consisting of additional experiments using the Edinburgh Guessing Test (EGT), did not yield significant results but there were some indications that, if it were to be used in conjunction with a suitable diagnostic questionnaire, it might be possible to predict which set of subjects would score positively, which negatively, and which would fall within chance expectation. Research is continuing at present using a first draft of such a diagnostic questionnaire. PsiLine psi/experiments/methodology

Thouless, Robert H. THE MEASUREMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF ESP, Journal 45, 1970, pp. 323-5. An index of psi efficiency is a necessary tool in comparing degrees of success in different psi tasks involving different probabilities of chance hits. Two such indexes are offered. The first is based on an ‘all-or-none’ assumption that each response is either completely determined by psi or completely accidental. The second index is based on the assumption that in a successful ESP experiment the probability of a correct response is increased by an equal amount for all responses. This is referred to as the ‘Equally Enhanced Probabilities’ assumption. The two indexes, though based on different assumptions about the nature of psi, are identical. There may be other bases for deriving an index of psi efficiency for instance, information theory. In any case, an index of efficiency is needed. PsiLine psi/experiments/methodology/theory

Thouless, Robert H. EXPERIMENTS ON PSI SELF-TRAINING WITH DR. SCHMIDT’S PRECOGNITIVE APPARATUS, Journal 46, 1971, pp. 15-21. The author was interested in the problem of whether the experimenting parapsychologist can train himself to score reliably in a psi task. Using Schmidt’s electronic apparatus with four colored lights, he conducted experimental sessions in which the lights alternately showed and did not show (did not give feedback) on the apparatus. Although there was some suggestion of a learning effect, it did not reach the level of significance and the author considered the experiment a failure. PsiLine precognition/experiments/methodology

Beloff, J. & Bate, D. AN ATTEMPT TO REPLICATE THE SCHMIDT’S FINDINGS, Journal 46, 1971, pp. 21-31. The authors hoped to add to the evidence for ESP from automated equipment which has already been reported by Schmidt. They used a machine which was functionally and electronically different from Schmidt’s, and which was primarily designed for a telepathic or GESP-type test condition, rather than precognition. A subsidiary aim of the experiment was to compare conditions of testing. Although the overall results failed to provide evidence of ESP and thus replicate the Schmidt findings, they did indicate the superiority of delayed feedback as against immediate feedback to the subject. PsiLine precognition/experiments

Randall, J.L. EXPERIMENTS TO DETECT A PSI EFFECT WITH SMALL ANIMALS, Journal 46, 1971, pp. 31-9. This series of experiments was carried out to determine whether a psi interchange could operate between man and small animals in this case, the common woodlouse. A petri dish was placed in the centre of a large circle which was divided into five sectors, each marked with one of the five ESP symbols. A woodlouse was placed in the dish, and the subject (one of a group of grammar school boys) then looked at a card from a randomised pack of ESP cards, endeavouring to ‘will’ the animal toward the corresponding section within the circle. The experimenter did not know which sector was the target. The overall scoring was positive but not significant. PsiLine animal psi/DMILS/experiments

Medhurst, R.G. THE ORIGIN OF THE ‘PREPARED RANDOM NUMBERS’ USED IN THE SHACKLETON EXPERIMENTS, Journal 46, 1971, pp. 39-55. An attempt is made to confirm or disprove the allegation that target numbers in the original experiments had been tampered with. The results do not bear out the original suspicion, but do seem to demonstrate that the target numbers were obtained ‘in some quite different way, not so far traceable.’ The authors stress that fraud is not at all implied, but are as confused as to the outcome as when they started. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 199-203. CORRECTIONS, Journal 46, 1971, pp. 203, 252-3. psi/telepathy/experiments/methodology/cheating

Randall, J.L. TWO PSI EXPERIMENTS WITH GERBILS, Journal 46, 1972, pp. 22-30. The purpose of this experiment was to develop a rapid and easy method of testing psi between humans and animals. Gerbils were placed in a testing apparatus that contained six wooden blocks, three on the left and three on the right side of an open topped box. The subject, sitting behind a screen, attempted to influence the animal by psi to jump up on the blocks on the left or the right according to a random target order. The subjects were 13 to 14year old English schoolboys. There were two series of runs, one aimed at positive scoring (psi-hitting) and one at negative scoring (psi-missing).   The data were to be evaluated for hits on the (+1) and (1) targets as well as for the direct (0) target. The overall scoring on the direct target gave insignificant results. Two individually outstanding subjects scored significantly on the (1) displacement position. The test procedure was deemed to be very successful with respect to ease and rapidity of administration. PsiLine DMILS/animal psi/experiments

Beloff, J. & Bate, D. THE TELEPHONE DIRECTORY AS A SOURCE OF RANDOM NUMBERS, Journal 46, 1972, pp. 46-8. Uncovers a bias in the phone book, previously thought to be a perfect source of random numbers. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 220-24 (2nd section!). psi/experiments/methodology

Scott, Christopher. ON THE EVALUATION OF VERBAL MATERIAL IN PARAPSYCHOLOGY: A DISCUSSION OF DR PRATT’S MONOGRAPH, Journal 46, 1972, pp. 79-90. Compares British and American approaches to the statistical evaluation of probability in statements made by mediums. psi/experiments/methodology

Knowles, Frederick W. [REINTERPRETATION OF PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTS WITH DICE], Journal 46, 1972, pp. 99-100. Argues that friction, temperature change, and other physical variables are sufficient to account for statistical effects in dice-throwing, whereas alternatives such as the use of steel spheres may be more consistent. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Randall, J.L. RECENT EXPERIMENTS IN ANIMAL PARAPSYCHOLOGY, Journal 46, 1972, pp. 124-35. Surveys psi experiments in which humans attempt to psychically influence animal behaviour and recent experiments attempting to determine whether animals have psi abilities devoid of a human E’s presence. Although some statistically significant results have been reported, it is cautioned that their explanations must be viewed critically. An experiment by W. J. Levy and E. Andre with chickens and a Schmidt random number generator is discussed, demonstrating an excess of Ons’ for a heat lamp on nights when chickens were present, when compared to control nights without chickens. Similar findings were reported using eggs. Chance and fraud were negated as explanations. It is concluded that regarding the psi property not as a property of an individual organism but instead as a property of the interpersonal field, a result of the interaction of the personalities involved in the experiment, may suggest an explanation in terms of some exterior psychic entity. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 47, 1973, Journal 46, 1972, p. 63. Protests against the practices described with animals. animal psi/experiments/methodology

Billig, Michael.   POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EXPERIMENTAL PSI RESULTS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND PARAPSYCHOLOGY JOURNALS, Journal 46, 1972, pp. 136-42. In general, Journals of parapsychology tend to publish only reports of experiments that show positive evidence of psi. There are few reports of negative findings (about 11% of the total number of articles from 1960-70). However, analysis of those psi research reports published in psychology Journals during the same period shows that a significant proportion (38.5%) of those articles were negative (i.e., showed no evidence of psi). It is not known whether this is due to author selection, Journal selection, or both. Determination of this would indicate whether psychology Journals are more sceptical toward parapsychology experiments than psychology experiments. PsiLine psi/experiments/methodology

Tart, Charles T., Boisen, M., Lopez, V. & Maddock, R. SOME STUDIES OF PSYCHOKINESIS WITH A SPINNING SILVER COIN, Journal 46, 1972, pp. 143-53. Three experiments were carried out in which the subject tried to influence a spinning coin to rest with a designated face uppermost. The coins were spun by a coin spinning machine onto a smooth topped table. Experiment 1 (20 subjects, 1,200 trials) gave a non-significant overall score and a significant decline from the first half of the sixty trials to the second half. One subject scored at the 0.008 level, and two at the 0.05 level. Experiments 2 and 3 (with 15 subjects each and 450 trials) gave non-significant total scores and slight tendencies toward decline. Combined, the three series gave a non-significant total score and a significant (P = 0.01) decline. PsiLine psychokinesis/experiments

Roy, A.E. NOTE ON A SERIES OF SHACKLETON NON-RANDOM EXPERIMENTS, Journal 46, 1972, pp. 181-91. Author’s abstract: In this article S.G. Soal’s series of experiments with Basil Shackleton, in which Shackleton was given blocks of non-randomly chosen cards, is analysed to show that it is possible to demonstrate the factors of facilitation, interference and displacement operating in Shackleton’s guesses. psi/displacement/experiments

Sheargold, Richard K. EXPERIMENT IN PRECOGNITION, Journal 46, 1972, pp. 201-8. Attempt to replicate a successful American experiment, designed to ascertain whether and to what extent extrasensory factors affect our normal every-day memory. The dream involves subjects recalling details of a recording that supposedly describes a dream. No significance is achieved, which the experimenter attributes to the number of variables involved. precognition/dreams/experiments

Dalton, G.F. [REACTION TIMES], Journal 46, 1972, p. 224. Suggests measuring reaction times in card-guessing experiments. psi/experiments/methodology

Dodds, E.R. GILBERT MURRAY’S LAST EXPERIMENTS, Proceedings 55, 1972, pp. 371-402. Describes hitherto unpublished telepathy experiments with a highly successful subject. Dodds concludes that the results cannot be convincingly or completely explained without postulating telepathy, although hyperesthesia may also have played some part. The start of the article gives references to Murray’s other work. PsiLine telepathy/experiments/theory

Dingwall, Eric J. GILBERT MURRAY’S EXPERIMENTS: TELEPATHY OR HYPERAESTHESIA? Proceedings 56, 1973 pp. 21-39. Against Dodds, Dingwall argues in favour of hyperacuity of hearing as the explanation of Murray’s seemingly successful telepathy results, stressing the apparent unwillingness by either subject or agents to test the matter by experiment. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 47, 1973, pp. 124-35, 269-76, 339-41. telepathy/experiments/theory

Millar, Brian. AN INEXPENSIVE PORTABLE ELECTRONIC ESP TESTER, Journal 47, 1973, pp. 90-95. Over the last few years there have been a number of ESP test machines designed and built. However, from the point of view of the amateur psychical researcher there are several major drawbacks in most of them, e.g., cost, non-portability, non-availability of components, lack of adaptability and excessive complexity. In the following design I have tried to eliminate these objections, especially that of cost. As a consequence the machine to be described is a ‘practical’ one, not a sophisticated laboratory model. As I describe it the apparatus is intended for fast and convenient preliminary testing, any successful subjects could then be retested in the standard way with cards. The design here, however, can be used, inter alia, as a basis for a more fully rigorous tester. Indeed, this design is intended to be altered according to the task for which it is required. I have suggested several possible modifications; however, I am sure there are many others which experimenters will wish to pursue. PsiLine psi/experiments/methodology

Nash, Carroll, B. ESP AND CUTANEOUS PERCEPTION, Journal 47, 1973, pp. 207-8. Brief account of an experiment aimed at demonstrating a link between self confidence and successful ESP scoring. The experiment involved the subjects identifying targets hidden from sight by touching them with their finger tips. Scores were achieved of over 50% above chance expectancy, too great to warrant determination of its statistical significance. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 47, 1974, pp. 390-91. psi/experiments/methodology

Barrington, M.R. A FREE RESPONSE SHEEP/GOAT EXPERIMENT USING AN IRRELEVANT TASK, Journal 47, 1973, pp. 222-45. Experiment aimed at using ESP to influence subjects’ recollections while performing a memory task. During each of 18 trials the subjects were shown a series of titled pictures of different objects. Later they were asked to write down as many of the names of the objects as they could recall. ESP agents in an adjacent room were simultaneously presented with another series of pictures illustrative of a single target theme, one unrelated to the material seen by the subjects. The recollections recorded by the subjects did not always correspond to what they had seen. Their false recollections were abstracted and examined to see if they corresponded to the target theme. The scoring was done by independent judges who were asked to mark each item (i.e., each false recollection) against all 18 target themes, awarding 0 to 5 according to the degree of correspondence. The results were evaluated by testing whether the items from any particular trial produced a higher scoring rate on the theme belonging to that trial than on the other themes. According to a questionnaire, subjects fell into four categories: moderate believers (17), uncertain but inclined to believe (25), unconvinced (2) and doubtful (3).   The moderate believers scored marginally above chance level (p = .054) and all four groups scored in descending order (p = .042). The difference in scoring level between the two more extreme groups was of the same order (p = .045). The advantages of this indirect method of ESP testing, and the technical problems involved, are discussed. PsiLine psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Scott, C. & Haskell, P. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: A DISCUSSION - [I] FRESH LIGHT ON THE SHACKLETON EXPERIMENTS?, Proceedings 56, 1974, pp. 43-72. Discusses a claim by Gretl Albert, a sitter in the Soal-Goldney precognition experiments with Basil, she had seen Soal altering his record sheets, changing Is into 4s and 5s. Since this claim was made in 1941 the scoring patterns and random sequence of the targets had been frequently re-examined. Soal, having lost the original score sheets, had given a detailed description of how he had derived the targets. The available copies were submitted to a computer search carried out by G. Medhurst in 1971 which however failed to identify the target sequences as described by Soal. A new computer analysis finds definite evidence in support of the claim for the sittings specified. But there is clear evidence that this specific manipulation did not take place in the great majority of sittings. Scott and Haskell looked for data support of the manipulation hypothesis in terms of four predictions: (1) an overall deficit of target 1; (2) an overall excess of targets 4 and 5; (3) a deficit of target 1 in those trials in which the guess was 4 or 5; and (4) an excess of hits on 4 and 5. The first two predictions were not upheld; the second two gave a significance level that virtually rules out chance as an explanation. To accommodate these seemingly conflicting results, Scott and Haskell modified their hypothesis, suggesting that the targets were ‘stacked’ in advance with an excess of Is and a deficit of 4s and 5s. This modified hypothesis accounts for the ESP score in Sitting 16, as well as Sittings 8 and 17, but not for any of the rest of the 40 sittings. An alternative hypothesis is that the observed effects were due to ESP operating in an eccentric manner. Since so much about ESP is not known, this hypothesis cannot be rigorously tested or refuted. But Scott and Haskell feel that such a hypothesis appears uncomfortably complex and the coincidence with the alteration claim still has to be swallowed. They conclude there is a strong case for accepting the essential truth of the claim, arguing that it would then seem unlikely that any significant proportion of the results in the Shackleton series was obtained by extrasensory perception. PsiLine For a description of the conclusive computer analysis that uncovered irregularities in the data see below: Markwick, Betty. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: NEW EVIDENCE OF DATA MANIPULATION, Proceedings 56, 1978, pp. 250-77. psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments/methodology/cheating

Goldney, K.M.   [II] THE SOAL GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON (BS): A PERSONAL ACCOUNT, Proceedings 56, 1974, pp. 73-84. Soal’s co-experimenter denies that Soal cheated and looks for another explanation for the Scott-Haskell statistical data. She points to all of the experimental work Soal did in which he did not find evidence of ESP and his later successful ESP work with Mrs. Stewart, which was never questioned. PsiLine For a description of the conclusive computer analysis that uncovered irregularities in the data see below: Markwick, Betty. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: NEW EVIDENCE OF DATA MANIPULATION, Proceedings 56, 1978, pp. 250-77. psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments/methodology/cheating

Mundle, C.W.K.   [Ill] THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS, Proceedings 56, 1974, pp. 85-7. Argues that Scott and Haskell miss some important points. Mundle doubts the reliability of Albert’s testimony and questions the assumption that Soal cheated on other sittings also. He concludes that ‘there are difficulties in making psychological sense of the hypothesis adopted by Scott and Haskell. Such considerations are not, of course, conclusive, but they ought to be weighed before concluding that a scientist made a habit of cheating in his own experiment.’ PsiLine See also: Scott, Christopher, and Haskell, Philip. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: A DISCUSSION. I. FRESH LIGHT ON THE SHACKLETON EXPERIMENTS? Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 56, 1974, pp. 43-72. For a description of the conclusive computer analysis that uncovered irregularities in the data see below: Markwick, Betty. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: NEW EVIDENCE OF DATA MANIPULATION, Proceedings 56, 1978, pp. 250-77. psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments/methodology/cheating

Thouless, Robert H. [IV] SOME COMMENTS ON ‘FRESH LIGHT ON THE SHACKLETON EXPERIMENTS’, Proceedings 56, 1974, pp. 88-92. Questions a reliance on the unsupported testimony of a single witness. Argues that the peculiarities of the guess/target matrices brought out by Scott and Haskell not alone prove manipulation nor warrant the conclusion that none of the results in the Shackleton experiments were obtained by ESP. Suggests a moral in the ability of a simple experimental design to exclude all possibility of cheating than the complex formula adopted by Soal. PsiLine See also: Scott, Christopher, and Haskell, Philip. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: A DISCUSSION. I. FRESH LIGHT ON THE SHACKLETON EXPERIMENTS? Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 56, 1974, pp. 43-72. For a description of the conclusive computer analysis that uncovered irregularities in the data see below: Markwick, Betty. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: NEW EVIDENCE OF DATA MANIPULATION, Proceedings 56, 1978, pp. 250-77. psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments/methodology

Beloff, John. V WHY I BELIEVE THAT SOAL IS INNOCENT, Proceedings 56, 1974, pp. 93-6. Points out two errors by Soal: his failure to let other experimenters confirm Shackleton’s ability independently, or to leave precise explanations of how the target sequence was determined. But believes Soal to be innocent of the charge of manipulation, explaining Shackleton’s pattern of scoring in terms of positional biases, which he argues are by no means unknown in ESP research. PsiLine   See also: Scott, Christopher, and Haskell, Philip. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: A DISCUSSION. I. FRESH LIGHT ON THE SHACKLETON EXPERIMENTS? Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 56, 1974, pp. 43-72. For a description of the conclusive computer analysis that uncovered irregularities in the data see below: Markwick, Betty. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: NEW EVIDENCE OF DATA MANIPULATION, Proceedings 56, 1978, pp. 250-77. psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments/methodology/cheating

Pratt, J.G.   [VI] FRESH LIGHT ON THE SCOTT AND HASKELL CASE AGAINST SOAL Proceedings 56, 1974, pp. 97-111. Points to errors in Scott and Haskell’s appendix and disputes many of their points. Suggests that Scott and Haskell have inadvertently shown the need for a new analysis of all of Shackleton’s significant results in order to check for ‘consistent missing’, a category which the author describes elsewhere, in which ‘the subject, because of some undefined psychological factor.. .tended to avoid calling 4 or 5 when the target was 1, but that he fairly consistently overcalled 3’s when 1 ‘s were presented.’ PsiLine See also: Scott, Christopher, and Haskell, Philip. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: A DISCUSSION. I. FRESH LIGHT ON THE SHACKLETON EXPERIMENTS? Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 56, 1974, pp. 43-72. For a description of the conclusive computer analysis that uncovered irregularities in the data see below: Markwick, Betty. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: NEW EVIDENCE OF DATA MANIPULATION, Proceedings 56, 1978, pp. 250-77. psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments/methodology/cheating

Barrington, M.R. [VII] MRS ALBERT’S TESTIMONY, Proceedings 56, 1974, pp. 112-6. Argues that there are too many inconsistencies and loose ends in Albert’s testimony to place much weight on her accusations. PsiLine See also: Scott, Christopher, and Haskell, Philip. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: A DISCUSSION. I. FRESH LIGHT ON THE SHACKLETON EXPERIMENTS? Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 56, 1974, pp. 43-72. For a description of the conclusive computer analysis that uncovered irregularities in the data see below: Markwick, Betty. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: NEW EVIDENCE OF DATA MANIPULATION, Proceedings 56, 1978, pp. 250-77. psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments/methodology/cheating

Stevenson, Ian. [VIII] THE CREDIBILITY OF MRS. GRETL ALBERT’S TESTIMONY, Proceedings 56, 1974, pp. 117-29. Attacks Albert’s credibility as an observer and argues her statements are not to be taken seriously. See also: Scott, Christopher, and Haskell, Philip. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: A DISCUSSION. I. FRESH LIGHT ON THE SHACKLETON EXPERIMENTS? Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 56, 1974, pp. 43-72. For a description of the conclusive computer analysis that uncovered irregularities in the data see below: Markwick, Betty. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: NEW EVIDENCE OF DATA MANIPULATION, Proceedings 56, 1978, pp. 250-77. psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments/methodology/cheating

Smythies, J.R.   [IX] ESP FACT OR FICTION: A SIDELIGHT ON SOAL, Proceedings 56, 1974 pp. 130-31. Refers to a 1951 experiment with hospital patients that produced unexpectedly significant results, with relevance to the Soal controversy. See also: Scott, Christopher, and Haskell, Philip. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: A DISCUSSION. I. FRESH LIGHT ON THE SHACKLETON EXPERIMENTS? Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 56, 1974, pp. 43-72. For a description of the conclusive computer analysis that uncovered irregularities in the data see below: Markwick, Betty. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: NEW EVIDENCE OF DATA MANIPULATION, Proceedings 56, 1978, pp. 250-77. psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments/methodology/cheating

Walker, Harry. [KIRLIAN PHOTOGRAPHY], Journal 47, 1974, pp. 343-4. Describes American attempts, partially successful, to construct a Russian-designed machine for detecting and photographing Kirlian ‘force-fields’. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 461-5; Journal 48, 1975, pp. 58-60. aura/photography/experiments/methodology

Cassirer, Manfred. EXPERIMENTS WITH NINA KULAGINA, Journal 47, 1974, pp. 315-8. Reports four informal experiments with Madame Kulagina (K), a Russian physical medium. Experiment I was conducted to discover if ? used electrostatic power to influence the movement of objects.   ? placed her hands on a can shielding a tumbler. Without moving the can, hydrometer inside the tumbler began to move and continued to do so even when her hands were removed. In Experiment II, 2 radiometers were placed side by side, one containing a vacuum, the other containing air. ? succeeded in turning both instruments simultaneously in the required direction. In Experiment III, ? made violent passes over a compass which eventually moved in 3 or 4 slight jerks while ? remained perfectly still. In Experiment IV, ? placed an Instamatic camera on a researcher’s arm, then placed her hand above it, producing a burning sensation. Neither the Instamatic film nor moving picture films which were taken of the experiments have yet been developed. PsiLine psychokinesis/experiments

Nash, Carroll B. INTERSUBJECT EFFECT AND EXPERIMENTAL AUTONOMY, Journal 47, 1974, pp. 341-2. Points out another characteristic of psi in that the subject’s ESP score may be affected by the relation of the particular subject to the other subjects in the experiment with respect to factors affecting psi expression. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Parker, Adrian. SOME SUCCESS AT SCREENING FOR HIGH SCORING ESP SUBJECTS, Journal 47, 1974, pp. 366-70. Reports two cases of extended ESP success from a sample of 25 volunteers screened on the Edinburgh Electronic ESP Tester (EEET). The EEET is a randomiser which selects 1 of 5 lamps to be subsequently illuminated on a display panel. The S has a similar display panel on which he presses the button that he thinks corresponds to the lamp illuminated on the agent’s panel. A controlled card-guessing series followed the screening.   The successful card-guessing results posed a fundamental problem in parapsychology: Why were two high scoring subjects found in a sample of 25? The possible influence of such factors as expectancy, rapport, and changes in subjective state in producing high ESP scores is considered. PsiLine psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Beloff, John. ESP: THE SEARCH FOR A PHYSIOLOGICAL INDEX, Journal 47, 1974, pp. 403-20. The increasing use of a physiological approach to parapsychology may be of particular value for several reasons: (1) In view of the unconsciousness of psi, this approach might make it circumvent the conscious decision-making process (traditionally involved in ESP-symbol guessing) by such means as detecting an ESP-mediated physiological response to an emotive target. (2) This method may make it possible to detect physiological states which correlate with positive scoring. (3) Psi-conducive states could perhaps be brought about via biofeedback techniques. (4) Physical bases for psi might be uncovered by psycho-physiological methods (such as the means of transmission of the psi message and the means whereby the brain receives and decodes psi information). Out of a number of possible physiological measures, research attention has been focused on the brain, specifically on EEG patterns, and on the activity of the autonomie nervous system (as measured by the plethysmograph and the GSR). The results of EEG studies are ambiguous, sometimes because of the absence of strong ESP effects in the data, one exception being Morris’s study of an established psychic in which a relationship was seen between psi performance and alpha activity, an instance which runs counter to the trend of most studies, in which it is questionable that psi had entered into the data. At the very least, the methodology of psychophysiology has enlarged the parapsychologist’s repertoire; at the most, it may enable experimenters to pick up ESP signals directly from the brain, where they are too feeble to penetrate the subject’s conscious field of awareness. Even if the physiological approach still has not yet vindicated its worth, it can be expected to remain an integral part of experimental parapsychology for a long time to come. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 48, 1975, pp. 118-20. psi/experiments/methodology/theory

Randall, John L. CARD-GUESSING EXPERIMENTS WITH SCHOOLBOYS, Journal 47, 1974, pp. 421-32. Tested 169 boys 13 and 14 years old to obtain evidence of ESP and to investigate the possible correlations between psi ability and H. J. Eysenck’s Neuroticism and Extraversion scores, as well as various other factors, including dream vividness and memory for dreams. Sixteen boys obtained ESP sores of marginal significance. A tendency for clairvoyance condition scores to be positively correlated with those under Generalized ESP was marginally significant. Attempts to show ESP ability correlations with hay fever or liability to suffer from depression or dizziness were not strongly supported. Results did not exhibit a high degree of consistency. The systematic use of variance to estimate the significance of ESP data is explained. PsiLine clairvoyance/precognition/telepathy/experiments/methodology

Randall, John L. AN EXTENDED SERIES OF ESP AND PK TESTS WITH THREE ENGLISH SCHOOLBOYS, Journal 47, 1974, pp. 485-94. An extended series of ESP and PK tests were conducted with three subjects who had previously performed well in classroom experiments on GESP and BT card tests. These three subjects were extensively retested over a period of months with the purpose of: (1) obtaining further significant scoring with the GESP and BT methods and thus confirming ESP in these subjects; (2) trying a variety of psi tests to see if psi could be elicited with other forms of testing; and (3) varying psychological and physical conditions in order to find a most favourable psi-conducive combination. Therefore six different psi tests were administered under a wide variety of conditions. Two subjects were able to repeat their original performance on the GESP and BT card tests by scoring in the predicted direction at a significant level. An analysis of variance showed no evidence that the different ESP tests or the different experimental conditions had any significant effect on the ESP scores.   Each subject also carried out PK tests. Subjects had to will a gerbil to move to the left or right side of a box, according to a random target order. One subject scored significantly with ? < .036. Subjects also carried out PK tests on a binary random number generator, but all results with this Schmidt machine were non-significant. One subject’s data showed a chronological decline that was statistically significant (p < .025). The author rejects the explanation of fatigue as causing the decline and suggests that this effect might be regarded as an habituation phenomenon. PsiLine psi/DMILS/psychokinesis/experiments

Rhine, J.B. [DR LEVY], Journal 47, 1974, pp. 520-21. The director of the FRNM resigns after being caught manipulating the results of a research project. psi/methodology/cheating

Roberts, F. Somerville et al. THREE COMMENTS ON THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIC SHACKLETON, Journal 48, 1975, pp. 87-94. Somerville Roberts indicates vulnerabilities in the Scott-Haskell fraud theory. G.D. Wasserman and K.M. Goldney discuss Soal’s honesty with personal reflections. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 245-67. Scott, Christopher & Haskell, Philip. FRAUD IN THE SHACKLETON EXPERIMENT: A REPLY TO CRITICS, pp. 220-26. Rebuts criticisms of the argument that Soal cheated. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 49, 1978, pp. 965-8. For a description of the conclusive computer analysis that uncovered irregularities in the data see below: Markwick, Betty. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: NEW EVIDENCE OF DATA MANIPULATION, Proceedings 56, 1978, pp. 250-77. psi/telepathy/precognition/experiments/methodology/cheating

Nash, Carroll B. DOMINANT PARTICIPANT EFFECT, Journal 48, 1975, pp. 56-8. Examines the possibility that any of the participants in an experiment may control the distribution of hits and misses in the subject’s responses. While psi may be transpersonal (1) and the subject’s responses may be affected by several participants in the experiment, in many cases an experimental effect is principally associated with one participant. However, because of the difficulty indicated by these questions of determining the role played by the participant, and because the subject’s responses have in different experiments been shown to be affected by the experimenter, by the agent, by the marker and even by other subjects in the experiment (2), it may be preferable to call the action of the effective individual the dominant participant effect. PsiLine psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Brookes-Smith, Colin. PARANORMAL ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE PHENOMENA, Journal 48, 1975, pp. 73-86. This is an account of the results obtained at nineteen sittings held at an S.P.R. member’s house near Daventry between January and August 1973. They were a continuation of the PK experiments previously reported (1) in which data-tape recording methods were employed for measuring mechanical forces and other variables associated with table levitation phenomena. The electrical effects reported here were unexpected but developed from chance observation of signals unaccountably appearing on the penchart transcriptions of data-tape records. The principal sittings and experimental results are briefly reported and there are also brief descriptions of special tables with interchangeable tops and of the electrodes or ‘grids’ and electrical detecting amplifiers. PsiLine psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Eisenbud, Jule. ON TED SERIOS’ ALLEGED CONFESSION, Journal 48, 1975, pp. 189-92. The investigator responsible for bringing to light the claimed feats of ‘thoughtography’ by Ted Serios, reveals a confession alleged on television by the stage conjurer James Randi to have been a figment of the sceptic’s imagination. psi/experiments/photography/magic/cheating

Gelade, G. & Harvie, R. CONFIDENCE RATINGS IN AN ESP TASK USING AFFECTIVE STIMULI, Journal 48, 1975, pp. 209-19. The experiment described here was an attempt to replicate some of the findings of Moss [Journal of Parapsychology, 1968-9] who found that factors favouring ESP effects were the use of (1) emotionally arousing target materials, (2) percipients who believed in, and claimed personal experience of ESP, and (3) artists as subjects. In the present experiment there were three modifications to Moss’s design. The first and third factors were not replicated. However, there was a significant relationship between confidence level and ESP scoring. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 48, 1976, pp. 357-8. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Keil, H.H.J. et al. DIRECTLY OBSERVABLE VOLUNTARY PK EFFECTS: A SURVEY AND TENTATIVE INTERPRETATION OF AVAILABLE FINDINGS FROM NINA KULAGINA AND OTHER KNOWN RELATED CASES OF RECENT DATE, Proceedings 56, 1976 pp. 197-235. Presents an extensive survey of observations made by various investigators on Nina Kulagina of Leningrad, and her ability to influence objects through psychokinesis. The history of the case is outlined, suggestions regarding fraud are examined, the varieties of PK phenomena with Kulagina are described, and physiological measurements are reported. It is concluded that her abilities appear genuine. Theoretical explanations proposed by Russian scientists are evaluated. A review of other related cases suggests that the phenomenon may be more widespread than previously believed. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 48, 1976, pp. 321-2. psychokinesis/experiments

Thouless, Robert H. THE EFFECT OF THE EXPERIMENTER’S ATTITUDE ON EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS IN PARAPSYCHOLOGY, Journal 48, 1976, pp. 261-6. The influence of the experimenter’s attitude (including his expectation) on experimental results has been clearly shown in other fields by the work of Rosenthal and others. Recent experimental work in parapsychology suggests that this factor may be especially important in our field and may help to explain many contradictions and anomalies in the experimental results.   The importance of this factor lies not so much in experimental work demonstrating psi, but rather in experiments investigating the modus operandi of psi. If the object of the experiment is to find out whether psi scoring is greater under one condition than another, the generally approved design is one in which a pilot experiment precedes the crucial experiment. While this design has many advantages, it also has the psychological disadvantage of focusing the experimenter’s attention on the expected result and thus probably maximizing any influence that his expectation may have on that result. An example of an anomaly which may be explained as the fulfillment of the experimenter’s expectation is Soal’s finding that his two subjects, Basil Shackleton and Mrs. Stewart, could succeed in ESP experiments only when the agent knew what the target card was. PsiLine psi/personality/experiments/methodology/theory

Brookes-Smith, Colin. SOME LONG-RANGE ESP PROPAGATION EXPERIMENTS, Journal 48, 1976, pp. 269-92. nb. This pagination appears twice in this volume - first go to page 364. The ESP experiments reported here took place in 1974 and 1975 over ranges from 10 to 350 miles and were intended to explore the possibility that ESP involves the temporary formation of a quasi-material agency. If so, there should be a measurable time interval between the application of the agent’s target stimulus and the subject’s response which would imply a finite propagation velocity. The experimental results suggest that although there are wide variations between individual performance, velocities between three and five miles per second are commonly attained. Mountains and hill country, also woodlands, built-up areas and bad weather conditions appear to vary the velocity. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 49, 1977, pp. 562-3. psi/experiments/methodology/theory

Wiklund, Nils. A PUBLIC EXPERIMENT WITH PRECOGNITION, Journal 48, 1976, pp. 293-300. nb. This pagination appears twice in this volume- first go to page 364. Readers of the Swedish Journal SOKAREN were invited to participate in an ESP experiment by describing one of five pictures hanging ‘somewhere in Sweden’ and then stating which of the five ESP card symbols was written on the back of that picture. Thirty-three persons submitted responses. Each experimenter independently judged each description by choosing the picture it matched most closely. These decisions were discussed and disagreements were resolved so that a single judgment was achieved. At this time the individual target orders were generated with the use of a random number table. It was hypothesized: (1) that there would be a no chance number of hits on both symbol and picture responses combined; and (2) that there would be a difference in the number of hits on trials using symbols as targets compared to those with pictures. Because of a difference between experimenters in interpreting the algorithm for the entry point into the random number table, two distinct target orders were inadvertently generated. Neither order provided a significant number of hits overall, nor was there any significant difference in the total number of hits between these orders. However, in one list 69% of the hits were in the picture trials; and when the responses were scored against the second list, 61% of the hits fell in the symbol trials. A posthoc analysis revealed that females scored significantly above chance expectation in the more successful target category of each target order (p = .004, one tailed). The authors discuss these results with respect to the differential effect often observed in parapsychology. PsiLine clairvoyance/precognition/experiments

Nash, Carroll B. DOMINANT PARTICIPANT EFFECT, Journal 48, 1975, pp. 56-7. Discusses the overlapping roles played by experimenter, agent and subject in psi experiments. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Nash, Carroll B. TWO ORDERS OF PSI MISSING, Journal 48, 1975, pp. 125-6. Argues that double psi-missing is the explanation for conflicting results reported by two groups of experiments, in one of which subjects who were good imagers had positive ESP scores, and in the other poor imagers had positive scores. psi/personality/experiments/methodology

Ducker, Frank E.M. [PK EFFECTS ON WATCHES], Journal 48, 1976, pp. 356. Urges the continuation of an interrupted experiment on possible PK interference experienced by some people with watches. psychokinesis/experiments

Canning, Judith. [OBSERVATION OF ESP IN SLOW MOTION], Journal 48, 1976, pp. 421. Suggests an ESP subject be hypnotised to give time for their physiological state to be recorded. hypnosis/experiments/methodology

Thouless, R.H. THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION GIVEN TO THE SUBJECT IN CARD-GUESSING EXPERIMENTS WITH CLOSED PACKS, Journal 49, 1977, pp. 429-33. Examines the effect of providing subjects with feedback during a run of a card-guessing experiment.   Simulated experiments were created to review the outcome. It is recommended that subjects should not be provided with feedback during a run. If they are, an electronic ESP machine to substantiate randomization must be used, or a greater number of open packs must be in the target pool. PsiLine psi/experiments/methodology

Hearne, Keith M.T. & Worsley, Alan. AN EXPERIMENT IN ‘TELEPATHIC’ PHOBIC FEAR AND R.E.M. SLEEP, Journal 49, 1977, pp. 434-9. An ESP and sleep experiment was performed using 8 Subject Agent (SA) pairs, each sharing a common phobia. Four pairs were emotionally close, the others not. During the S’s dream periods, the phobic stimulus was presented, in random sequence, to the agent in blocks of 10 trials, each trial lasting 12 minutes. The S’s heart rate and a measure of eyemotility during the presentation trials were compared to that of the control (non-presentation) trials. Neither measure showed a significant difference between Experimental and Control conditions, in either group, or in all the Ss taken together. PsiLine telepathy/dreams/experiments

Nash, Carroll. [TERMINAL SALIENCE], Journal 49, 1977, pp. 563-4. Speculates on the reasons for ‘terminal salience’, the occurrence of higher scores at both ends of an ESP experiment. psi/experiments/methodology/theory

Hasted, J.B. PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF PARANORMAL METAL BENDING, Journal 49, 1977, pp. 583-607. Performed experiments utilizing strain gauge sensors on 13 separate days to test the paranormal metal bending abilities of 17-year-old Nicholas William in his home. Methods, results, and possible interpretations are given in detail. PsiLine psychokinesis/experiments

Whitten, D. J. SOME ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO INVESTIGATIONS IN TELEPATHY, Journal 49, 1977, pp. 644-7. The author criticizes card guessing experiments because they cannot provide the optimal relaxed situation for telepathic reception to occur, and suggests other testing situations such as a ouija board, a séance setting, ‘back writing,’ and melodies as targets. PsiLine telepathy/experiments/methodology

Hearne, Keith M.T. VISUALLY EVOKED RESPONSES AND ESP - AN EXPERIMENT, Journal 49, 1977, pp. 648-57. Eight subject-agent (SA) pairs were employed in an experiment concerning visually-evoked-responses (VERs) and ESP. Half the SA pairs were emotionally close, the others not. Eight VER waveforms were recorded from each S. Each consisted of the averaged brain responses resulting from 100 flashes of light, picked up by scalp electrodes. Half the VERs were from experimental trials, where the A observed a tachistoscopic display of the S’s photograph at the moment the S saw each flash of light. The others were from control trials, where the A did not view the tachistoscope. ? and C trials (4 + 4) occurred randomly, the S not knowing which were which. Amplitude and latency measures of 4 main VER peaks were subjected to computerized analysis of variance. It was found that, taking both groups together, a significant difference between ? and C trials occurred (E giving a less negative peak than C) for the amplitude of a negative peak approximately 65 mS after stimulation (p < .025). Further, the Notclose group displayed a significant decrease in negativity of that component relative to C trials (p = .01), while the Closegroup showed a non-significant movement in the opposite direction. A highly significant interaction effect resulted (p < .001). PsiLine telepathy/experiments/methodology

Randi, James. [METAL BENDING], Journal 49, 1977, pp. 671-4. The stage magician and sceptic argues that, contrary to the complaints of parapsychologists, adequate tests of metal bending are easy to create. J.B. Hasted, a leading investigator of metal bending, retorts that the magician does not understand the phenomenon. See also pp. 899-902. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology/cheating

Sargent, Carl L. [MEDIUMISTIC ESP EXPERIMENT], Journal 49, 1977, pp, 686-8. Some significant results are reported in an ESP experiment with a psychometrist. clairvoyance/experiments

Sargent, Carl L. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN VISUAL IMAGERY AND PSI, Journal 49, 1978, pp. 805-23. This study was designed to avoid certain criticisms of previous investigations of the role of visual imagery in psi. Twenty individually tested subjects were given a modified form of the Betts QMI Vividness of Imagery Scale and a personality test (Cattell’s 16PF) before taking a psi test. The psi test involved the memorization of an equal number of words from the following four categories: high imageability/high frequency, low imageability/high frequency, high imageability/low frequency, and low imageability/low frequency. On recall, the subject was asked to place each letter of the word either above or below a midline on the recall form so as to correspond to random placements indicated on a target sheet in an envelope underneath it (p = 1/2). Each subject participated in two runs separated by a 40minute activity period. To avoid interference effects in memory, the words of the two lists differed in length. The order of presentation of the lists was counterbalanced. Subjects were given two minutes to memorize the short word list, one minute to memorize the long word list, and unlimited recall time. They were instructed to make an ESP response, even if they did not recall all the words, by making Xs on the recall form instead of the letters of the words. The overall ESP scores did not significantly deviate from chance. On the basis of their Betts Scale scores, subjects were divided into high and low imagers and their normed deviation scores were compared. High imagers scored lower than low imagers (p < .05, two tailed), and, as predicted, showed higher variance (p = .03, one tailed). A one-way ANOVA showed no significant effect of word type. The interaction between visual imagery level and the imageability of the stimulus was analysed by a correlation between subjects’ visual imagery scores and the difference in their scoring rates on high and lowimageability words. This correlation was + .514, which was significant at the .01 (one tailed) confidence level. High imagers showed a trend toward higher scoring on high than on lowimageability words (p = .022, two tailed). The two subgroups responded significantly differently to the lowimageability words (p < .01, two tailed), primarily because of significant missing in this condition by high imagery subjects. The author reports that the addition of the auditory imagery scores to the above analyses reduced the significance of the results and concludes that the visual imagery subscale is the better predictor of ESP scores. Although there was a substantial difference in recall ability between the two subgroups (p < .05, two tailed), an analysis of the effect of recall ability on ESP scores did not show it to be a significant variable. Potentially confounding variables (anxiety, extraversion, and word frequency) were found to have no significant effect. Additional analyses revealed no salience or decline effects or differences between groups with respect to response biases. High imagers’ missing on low-imageability words, which contributed strongly to the significant correlation, is discussed with respect to motivational factors. It is suggested that high imagers prefer to use visual imagery and visual memory, but have to rely on semantic memory for the low-imageability words. This might influence their motivation on these trials. PsiLine psi/personality/experiments/methodology

West, DJ. CHECKS ON ESP EXPERIMENTERS, Journal 49, 1978, pp. 897-9. West proposes that it would be a wise policy for research workers in parapsychology always to have their experiments repeated by a second and independent worker, preferably operating in alternate sessions, using the same subjects and the same setting. So long as the matter is not put to the test it is too easy to convince oneself that results depend upon one’s own personal magic. If independently conducted experiments were to give the same results, that would show that the findings were not dependent upon one individual’s honesty, competence or personal influence. If the repetitions were to give null or different results the experimenter’s time would not have been wasted. He would then have established his own role in the production of the effects and be in a position to adjust his hypotheses and his tests accordingly. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 978-80; Journal 50, 1979, pp. 129-31. psi/experiments/methodology

Randall, J.L. [ONE-TAILED PROBABILITIES], Journal 49, 1978, pp. 903-4. Argues against the increasing use of one-tailed probabilities in parapsychological research. psi/experiments/methodology

Taylor, Gordon Rattray. [BRITISH PRECURSOR TO RHINE], Journal 49, 1978, pp. 906. Argues that Rhine’s statistical method of ESP research was anticipated by the British writer C. W. Olliver in The Extension Of Consciousness: An Introduction to the Study of Metapsychology, published in 1932. psi/experiments/methodology

Markwick, Betty. THE SOAL-GOLDNEY EXPERIMENTS WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: NEW EVIDENCE OF DATA MANIPULATION, Proceedings 56, 1978, pp. 250-77. Presents computer results and detailed target sequence analysis of the data gathered by S.G. Soal in the years 1941-43 using B. Shackleton as percipient in a series of cardguessing experiments. Many target sequences proved to be near duplicates with interruptions in the sequences, suggesting the insertion of single extra digits. Three in four of these insertions corresponded to hits. Removing these trials from the data eliminated the significance of the ESP effect. This does not mean that Soal consciously cheated, since he was known to often write automatically in a state of dissociation when distracted by a task. The evidence, however, does establish data manipulation and discredits the results. PsiLine Goldney, K.M. STATEMENT, Proceedings 56, 1978, ? . 278. Goldney praises Markwick for noting the repeated sequences of target lists not picked up either by Hansel or by Scott and Haskell. She concedes that if the new findings are valid she and other defenders of Soal would be wrong, but would have been justified in their views by the available evidence. PsiLine Pratt, J.G. STATEMENT Proceedings 56, 1978, pp. 279-81. Pratt praises Markwick’s achievement of problem-solving through data analysis. He agrees with Markwick that, since some of the data are seriously deficient, all of the records must be considered invalid as evidence of ESP, but advises against making judgements of Soal’s behaviour, motives, and character. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 49, 1978, pp. 968-70; Journal 50, 1979, p. 126, 191-2. Reactions to Marwick’s discovery of fraud by Soal, including retractions by Beloff and Stevenson of their previous insistence, against Scott and Haskell, that he was innocent. Sargent, Carl. THE PARSONS EXPERIMENT WITH BASIL SHACKLETON: SOME NEGLECTED DATA, pp. 174-9. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 51, 1981, pp. 123-4. Takes issue with Marwick’s automatic rejection of a survivalist interpretation of a psi dream, although this might seem a logical one. psi/telepathy/precognition/displacement/experiments/methodology/cheating

Hasted, J.B. & Robertson, D. THE DETAIL OF PARANORMAL METAL BENDING, Journal 50, 1979, pp. 9-20. The detection of dynamic strain signals in paranormal metal bending ‘action’ has enabled experimentation to be carried out on the distribution of the action around the metal bender. A resistive strain gauge is mounted on or in a small metal specimen, which hangs from its screened electrical connections; electrical bridge, amplifier and chart recorder enable dynamic strain data to be collected. It is found that the ‘action’ occurs in bursts of extension or contraction, rather randomly distributed in time, often at a rate of about 50 per hour. An early result of experiments with several independent embedded resistive strain gauges was the finding that dynamic strain pulses were frequently registered simultaneously on two entirely separate metal specimens. The data were interpreted in terms of a crude physical model of a ‘surface of action,’ at points on which strain pulses occur. The configuration and movement of this surface with respect to the metal bending subject can then be studied. A further series of studies was conducted with several independent strain gauges on a single piece of metal. The linear array of gauges along a thin strip of metal respond simultaneously to the ‘action,’ but the signals are strongest in the centre of a ‘region of action,’ which extends about 10 inches, and can move slightly from event to event. A series of experiments was also conducted with strain gauges on opposite sides of the metal strip. For a ‘pure bend’ the signals should be equal and in opposite directions, but these conditions were only obtained in the limit of infinitely thin metal strips; for strips of thickness in the region of 1 cm, one strain gauge receives a much smaller signal than the other, as though the penetration was incomplete. PsiLine psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Braud, Lendell. & Braud, William. PSYCHOKINETIC EFFECTS UPON A RANDOM EVENT GENERATOR UNDER CONDITIONS OF LIMITED FEEDBACK TO VOLUNTEERS AND EXPERIMENTER, Journal 50, 1979, pp. 21-32. Two experiments were conducted to explore psychokinetic effects under conditions of limited feedback to volunteers and experimenter. In Experiment 1,10 volunteers attempted to influence a Schmidt random event generator. For half of their runs, volunteers received immediate, trial-by-trial visual feedback. For the other half of their runs, no sensory feedback was provided. Chance scoring occurred under the feedback condition; significant PK hitting occurred under the non-feedback condition. In Experiment 2, 20 volunteers attempted to influence the random generator under non-feedback conditions only. Significant PK-hitting occurred. These findings are discussed in terms of: (a) nature and degree of feedback to volunteers and experimenter, (b) conditions under which absence of feedback may actually facilitate psi, (c) sensory vs. psi-mediated feedback, and (d) a possible psi-mediated as a experimenter effect acting in conjunction with a possible principle of ‘psi availability quantity.’ PsiLine psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Thalbourne, Michael A. A MORE POWERFUL METHOD OF EVALUATING DATA FROM FREE RESPONSE EXPERIMENTS, Journal 50, 1979, pp. 84-107. This paper opens by drawing the traditional distinction between ESP experiments of the ‘forced choice’ type and the ‘free response’ method, and points out some of the advantages to be gained from using the latter rather than the former. The two major statistical problems that arise in the use of a free response technique are then defined: (1) the question of how to assess, objectively, the degree of resemblance between the stimulus, or target, and the response; and (2) the question of how to decide whether the observed degree of target response similarity deviates significantly from chance expectation. The first problem may be tackled using Stuart’s Preferential Matching Method, which is here described and illustrated. The second problem has been approached in various ways by Stuart and by Morris. However, this paper advocates the use of multiple judges to rank evaluate the same material, in conjunction with a computer run Randomization Test to analyze the resulting matrix of average ranks. The power, range, and applicability of this approach are discussed. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 284-6. See also Journal 55, 1988, pp. 85-89, where the author adjusts his findings. PsiLine psi/experiments/methodology

Ward, M. RANDOMNESS EFFECTS IN A SIMULATED ESP CARD GUESSING EXPERIMENT, Journal 50, 1979, pp. 108-13. The experiment described below set out to re-examine the importance of randomness and chance expectation in card guessing studies. Using modern computer techniques, it was possible to create a situation similar to that of a traditional card guessing experiment, minimizing the possibility of ‘psi’ influence. The results shown are very close to the number predicted by chance. This demonstrates the validity of the statistical baseline of chance expectation, in situations with minimal ‘psi’ present. PsiLine psi/experiments/methodology

Braud, W., Davis, G. & Wood, R. EXPERIMENTS WITH MATTHEW MANNING, Journal 50, 1979, pp. 199-223. Five experiments are described in which Matthew Manning attempted to influence living target systems mentally and at a distance, i.e., psychokinetically. Experiment 1 involved attempts to influence the locomotor activity of a gerbil in an activity wheel. Experiment 2 involved attempts to influence the spatial orientation of an electric fish. In Experiment 3, the physiological activity (GSR reactions) of another person served as the PK target. GSR activity was also the target in Experiment 4, but in this case, the activity had been pre-recorded; thus, the experiment involved ‘time displaced’ PK. In Experiment 5, Matthew Manning attempted to decrease the rate of haemolysis of human erythrocytes which were being stressed osmotically. In all experiments, with the exception of Experiment 4, the living target systems were successfully influenced. Two ‘incidental’ clairvoyance experiments are also reported. Results are discussed in the context of task relevant motivation. PsiLine psi/DMILS/psychokinesis/clairvoyance/experiments

Tart, Charles T. & Palmer, John. SOME PSI EXPERIMENTS WITH MATTHEW MANNING, Journal 50, 1979, pp. 224-8. During the last week of May 1977, a number of exploratory psi experiments were undertaken with Mr. Matthew Manning at the University of California, Davis. Generally speaking, these experiments provided little evidence of psi, but there were results in some of the experiments that were suggestive of psi, especially displacement effects. These experiments will be reported in various articles authored by the persons primarily responsible for given segments of the projects. In this report we will discuss those experiments initiated by C.T.T: A coin spinner experiment with significant results; ESP feedback training, with chance results; and an aura detection pilot study, with chance results. The author notes that the work with ADEPT was unusual in that the device seemed to show an enormous variety of transient malfunctions, consistent with a poltergeist type of manifestation, but our observations on this unexpected phenomenon were too unsystematic for us to offer them as more than a casual observation at this time. We believe that further work with Matthew might be profitable in yielding information about psi phenomena, especially if systematic ways of assessing unexpected results are found. PsiLine psi/psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Roberts, Ron. [REPERTORY GRID TECHNIQUE], Journal 50, 1980, pp. 322-4. The correspondent suggests adopting George Kelley’s Repertory Grid Technique, an instrument derived from Kelley’s construct psychology, to better understand the complex of personality characteristics and motivations present in persons who report or exhibit psychic functioning. Some specific advantages of this approach are  discussed. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 487-8. psi/experiments/methodology

Hasted, J.B. & Robertson, D. PARANORMAL ACTION ON METAL AND ITS SURROUNDINGS, Journal 50, 1980, pp. 379-98. The authors discusses investigations of ostensible psychokinetic effects on metal and its surroundings as contributed by a variety of special subjects, most of them children. Among the effects outlined are localization (that the centre strain gauge signal of three synchronous signals was usually the largest, suggesting a kind of ‘region of action’ of variable position, size, and power or, from the most recent experiments, that there is a kind of bell shape to synchronous signals obtained by strain gauges); surface of action (that the effect was maximized when the sensors lay on a vertical surface stretching radially outwards, such that the effect might be regarded as an invisible extension of the subject’s arm); electrical effects (that is the detection of some ‘shock like’ effect by the subject on the hand he was extending towards the target that is likewise verified to some extent by the instrumentation, a verification that led the authors to suppose that short bursts of charge may be produced remotely and paranormally on or near to remote metal targets); and structural effects (that is hardening or deformation of the target material, such that structural transformation within the target occurs locally, redistributing the regions of different structure). Methodological and theoretical concerns were discussed in light of the findings.   PsiLine psychokinesis/experiments/methodology/theory

Burnett, Timothy A. [KIRLIAN PHOTOGRAPHY], Journal 50, 1980, pp. 488-9. Describes experiments in Kirlian photography: a dead wasp showed a ‘perfect corona’ which should have been absent if the process reveals the life-force of living things. Argues that his Kirlian photographs did not match the descriptions of the aura given by psychics. Also reveals a method of forgery that involves exposing the paper twice. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 51, 1981, pp. 33-4. aura/experiments/photography/cheating

Blackmore, Susan. A STUDY OF MEMORY AND ESP IN YOUNG CHILDREN, Journal 50, 1980, pp. 501-20. The literature on ESP in children is reviewed. Although many studies show high scoring in children, there is little systematic evidence of a relationship between ESP and age and there are many contradictory findings. Two experiments are reported. In a pilot study using Smarties as targets no significant scores were obtained either in a clairvoyance or in a GESP test. Suggestions made for improving the method were incorporated into the main experiment, a study of memory and ESP. Here response pictures were related to target pictures in three different ways, and memory for them was also tested. No differences in scoring between the target types were found nor any relationship to target memorability. No correlation with memory test scores was evident and there was no significant relationship between ESP and age.   From these results it was not possible to draw any conclusions about the nature of ESP. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 51, 1981, pp. 36-7,124-9, 196-8, 321. See also Journal 52, pp. 311-5. psi/experiments/methodology

Scutt, D.C. AN INVESTIGATION INTO METAL BENDING ‘GELLER EFFECT’ WITH ORI SVORAY, Journal 51, 1981, pp. 1-6. It was suggested by Professor Taylor, in his book SUPERMINDS and in discussion with him, that where metal is ‘paranormally’ bent there could well be a redistribution of strain energy and, most probably, a lowering of the energy in the area of bending. I am of the opinion that the process of ‘paranormal’ bending is completely normal and I use the term ‘paranormal’ to differentiate this type of bending from physical bending of the samples (as in mechanical loading). The first series of experiments with Ori Svoray was to establish whether there is a lowering of the energy in the area of bending. To accomplish this, Ori was given a number of aluminium alloy samples to paranormally bend. A practical experiment used in teaching materials science to mechanical engineering students at Caulfield Institute of Technology was modified to determine the stress distribution in pure aluminium after ‘paranormal’ bending. This gives the sample a gradation of cold working (stored strain energy in the form of residual stresses induced by plastic deformation) along its length, from very high at the narrow end to nil at the wide end. It is heated in a furnace to 540 degrees centigrade for 20 minutes so that the grains will reform in the metal (recrystallization). The sample is then etched in a few millilitres of mixed acids (33 ml H20, 47 ml HNO3, 60 ml HC1, to which a few drops of HF acid has been added). This causes the grains to etch up very clearly within a couple of minutes. Ori bent the aluminium samples in front of witnesses, while being videotaped and at home. The results were constant in that where the metal was bent the energy had increased and the stress in the rest of the metal had not changed, that is, the energy stored in one part of the metal had not been redistributed to cause the sample to bend. In this case it is similar to work hardening.   In the third test the samples when bent had grain growth around the edges. This suggests that the metal bending process is similar to heating of a metal in that it caused grain growth to occur at areas of high strain, that is, it behaved as if it had been annealed. It was a pity that this grain growth did not recur when the experiment was repeated. No further tests were carried out as we were running short of the special aluminium alloy. The last tests, using the precipitation hardening alloy, confirmed that a change of hardness did occur but not in the way expected, nor in a way that could be duplicated using normal heat treatments. The loss of hardness (brought about by the stroking) may have been due to the dissolving of quenched dislocation tangles. The results from tests one and two appear to be contradictory. They suggest that metal bending is similar to both work hardening, which increases stresses, and annealing, which reduces stresses. The experiments were simple, did not require instrumentation or statistical analysis. Only one solution heat treated alloy needs to become softer after stroking to demonstrate that something strange is happening, something that cannot be explained by trickery or sleight of hand. PsiLine psychokinesis/experiments/methodology/theory

Ashton, Hugh T., Dear, Peter R. & Harley, Trevor A. A FOUR-SUBJECT STUDY OF PSI IN THE GANZFELD, Journal 51, 1981, pp. 12-21. Four subjects each completed eight Ganzfeld/GESP sessions using pictorial targets and a judging procedure with ? = .25 as a chance level of success. Target pictures were randomly selected from a pool of potential targets, agent and subject were located in different buildings, and there was no possibility of sensory cueing in the study. Subjects chose their own duration of exposure to Ganzfeld stimulation on a session by session basis. There were 4 direct hits in the session, six more than mean chance expectation, which is a significant deviation (p = .012). A sum of ranks analysis also yielded significant evidence of overall psi-hitting (p = .009). There was a significant mean correlation of session duration with ESP performance (rs = + .3575, p < .006), which is supportive of Honorton’s model of Ganzfeld psi-optimization. Many of the hits were qualitatively impressive and examples of some are given, together with a discussion of the role of the agent in Ganzfeld GESP experiments and a speculation about the possibility of PK-optimization in Ganzfeld. It is concluded that the study provides further evidence for the ESP-optimizing power of Ganzfeld.   We were also able to replicate our previously found ESP/extraversion correlation (rs = + 1.0, p = .042), and this correlation deserves further study. psi/ganzfeld/experiments

Hasted, J.B. & Robertson, D.   PARANORMAL ELECTRICAL EFFECTS, Journal 51, 1981, pp. 75-86. The authors report several experiments in which they tested a metal bending boy, Stephen North, with improved strain gauge instrumentation capable of ruling out artifactual results made by motion or touch. In addition they directly tested a number of other factors that may influence the results of such experiments. Among them: they deliberately maintained and manipulated an atmospheric electric field during an experiment; and they used a two ended Townsend Huxley drift tube in another. The authors give detailed descriptions of their instrumentation and methods of analyses and emphasize the importance of further work on the influence of atmospheric ionisation on results. PsiLine psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Hearne, Keith M.T.   THE EFFECT ON THE SUBJECT (IN WAKING, SWS AND REM STATES) OF ELECTRIC SHOCKS TO THE AGENT: AN ‘ESP’ EXPERIMENT, Journal 51, 1981, pp. 87-92. Eight subject agent (SA) pairs, each emotionally  close, were used in an ‘ESP’ experiment in which the awake A received 8 electric shocks over a 16minute period when the S was in each of the following distinct physiological states: awake, slow wave sleep (SWS), and rapid eye movement sleep (REM). Heart rate was measured in the S at those times. Eight Control (C) trials, where the shock was diverted to a resistor, were randomly interspersed with the Experimental (E) trials. There was no significant difference between ? and C trials overall in any of the 3 conditions. One SA pair appeared to show an ‘ESP’ effect; however, 2 reruns failed to reproduce it, so the statistical significance was taken to be spurious. PsiLine DMILS/experiments/methodology

Morris, Neil G. SIGNIFICANCE LEVELS, Journal 51, 1981, pp. 122-3. The author writes: ‘The notion that the results of investigations in parapsychology should be accepted at only very high signficance levels as opposed to the traditional and arbitrary 5 per cent and 1 per cent psychology is surely fallacious’. psi/experiments/theory

Hearne, Keith M.T. VISUALLY-EVOKED RESPONSES AND ‘ESP’: FAILURE TO REPLICATE PREVIOUS FINDINGS, Journal 51, 1981, pp. 145-7. Author’s abstract: Sixteen subject agent pairs (eight emotionally close, the others strangers) were used in an attempt to confirm the findings of a previous 1977 experiment concerning visually evoked responses and ‘ESP.’ In the original study, the amplitude of a negative peak (recorded at the scalp over the visual cortex), some 65 ms after unpatterned photic stimulation of the subject, appeared to vary according to whether or not the agent was simultaneously viewing a tachistoscopic presentation of the subject’s photograph. It had been found that the direction of the amplitude shift was opposite for the two groups. In this larger-scale replication, no statistically significant results emerged. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Bierman, Dick J. & Isaacs, Julian. AN OPEN LETTER TO JULIAN ISAACS, Journal 51, 1981, pp. 183-4. Bierman formalizes a bet he made with Isaacs at the 1981 SPR conference in Bristol. In response to an enthusiastic endorsement of Cox’s ‘mini-lab’ preparation as a method to test macro-PK, Bierman bet $200 that he could reproduce by normal means any event taking place in a mini-lab when control of the device was based on instrumentation alone. Bierman urges his colleagues to ‘abandon the idea of convincing non-believers by singular evidence’ and instead to ‘focus on the detection of strong psi sources’ and to ‘do process-oriented research.’ Likewise, he reminds Isaacs that technological sophistication may be easily used to commit fraud as to control for fraud. In reply, Isaacs agrees with Bierman that attempts to convince critics are futile and that research should be focused on detecting strong psi sources and on process oriented problems. Likewise, Isaacs agrees that a fraud-proof experiment is impossible to achieve. Isaacs then lists the conditions under which he would undertake a replication of Cox’s work with the mini-lab. These conditions include a variety of sophisticated and heavily controlled monitoring devices and security procedures, which, if followed precisely, should preclude all but the most sophisticated tampering. Isaacs concludes by discussing the ‘fraud versus security’ race that would result from acceptance of Bierman’s bet and encourages the application of a ‘sliding scale’ of security procedures to fit the needs of specific protocols. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, p. 322. psychokinesis/experiments/theory

Gregory, Anita (ed). LONDON EXPERIMENTS WITH MATTHEW MANNING, Proceedings 56, 1982, pp. 283-366. Describes the investigation of poltergeist activity centering on a teenage boy, Matthew Manning. Gregory gives an outline sketch of the phenomena and describes arrangements for the investigation. Individual reports follow, all with Matthew Manning as subject: ‘Bean Growth Promotion Pilot Experiment,’ by Mary Rose Barrington; ‘Pendulum Experiment,’ by A.J. Ellison; ‘Random Event Generator Experiment,’ by A.J. Ellison; ‘Poetry Experiments,’ by Anita Gregory; ? Note on the Methodology of Blind Matching’ by Ivor Grattan-Guinness; ‘Infra-red Experiments,’ by Anita Gregory and Kathleen Wilson; ‘Experiments on Possible Psychic Effects on the Growth Rate of Moulds,’ by J.B. Hasted, ‘The Subject’s Report,’ by Matthew Manning; ‘Comments’ by Brian Inglis; and ‘Postscript’ by Anita Gregory. PsiLine psi/DMILS/psychokinesis/experiments

Nash, Carroll B. SINGLE CALLS OF GESP AND CLAIRVOYANCE TARGET PAIRS, Journal 51, 1982, pp. 214-6. Author’s abstract: Two experimenters each tested 30 subjects for a total of 60 different subjects, with a separate session often runs for each subject. The runs consisted of 12 one symbol calls, each call being simultaneously directed to both members of a different pair of cards taken successively off the top of an open deck of 24 randomly arranged ESP cards. After turning the pair upside down, the experimenter looked at the symbol on the new top card of the inverted pair, and did not look at the symbol on the new bottom card of the inverted pair until after the call. Thus the top card afforded a test of GESP and the bottom card a test of clairvoyance. The GESP score had a positive deviation with a one tailed ? < .009, whereas the clairvoyance score was insignificantly negative. A test of the difference between the GESP and clairvoyance scores for each subject yielded a one tailed ? <. 05. A positive correlation occurred between the subjects’ scores on GESP and clairvoyance with a two tailed ? < .05. Reinforcement did not occur when the two targets were alike. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 401-2. psi/clairvoyance/telepathy/experiments

ash, Carroll B.   PSYCHOKINETIC CONTROL OF BACTERIAL GROWTH, Journal 51, 1982, pp. 217-21. The experiment was conducted to determine whether the growth of the bacterium Escherichia coli can be psychokinetically accelerated and decelerated during a 24hour period with subjects not known to be psychically gifted. Each of 60 subjects was tested in a single run consisting of a set of three tubes of bacterial culture to be growth promoted, a set of three to be growth inhibited, and a set of three to serve as controls. The growth was greater in the promoted tubes than in either the controls or the inhibited tubes, with one tailed ? <.05. Posthoc correlations between the three treatments for the 60 subjects yielded the following results with 59 df:r between promoted and inhibited tubes = .73 with twotailed ? <.001, r between promoted and control tubes = .41 with twotailed ? <.005, r between inhibited and control tubes = .33 with twotailed ? <.02. Posthoc analyses showed that the intersubject variance in growth was (1) greater between the three treatments than within them, with twotailed ? <.05, and (2) greater in both the promoted and the inhibited tubes than in the controls, with one tailed ? <.01 in each case. The results are interpreted to indicate that bacterial growth was psychokinetically accelerated in some of the tubes intended for growth promotion and psychokinetically retarded in some of the tubes intended for growth inhibition. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, p. 400. DMILS/experiments

Sargent, Carl L. A GANZFELD GESP EXPERIMENT WITH VISITING SUBJECTS, Journal 51, 1982, pp. 222-32. Twenty subjects who were visitors to the laboratory each completed one 35minute Ganzfeld GESP free response trial. The target materials were pictures, and the statistical measure was a four way choice method. The overall results were not significant by direct hit or by rank sum analysis, although the latter method was only just short of significance (p = .067). The visiting journalists, half the subject sample, performed better than the other subjects. Analysis of questionnaire material showed that, as predicted, subjects who reported that the Ganzfeld was successful in changing their state of consciousness were significantly more likely to be succeed in the ESP task than those who did not report this (p < .05). Successful subjects were also significantly more relaxed, both before (p < .05) and after (p < .01) the session, experienced significantly more bizarre imagery (p < .05) and time contraction (p < .05), and approached the session in a significantly better mood (p < .01), than unsuccessful subjects. The results confirm the prevailing picture of successful Ganzfeld ESP performance as discussed by authors such as Braud and Honorton. PsiLine psi/ganzfeld/experiments

Wood, R.H. ON THE IMPORTANCE OF CORRECT MECHANICS IN PARANORMAL RESEARCH, Journal 51, 1982, pp. 246-52. The author presents a critical assessment of current research into ostensibly paranormal metal bending and table levitation, citing the empirical potential of such phenomena for eventual instrumental control of the mechanics, statics, and dynamics involved. Brookes-Smith’s investigations into table-lifting, as well as his contributions to relevant instrumentation, are examined in detail. Hasted’s and Robertson’s work with stresses and strains in metal bending are also examined. Wood concludes by suggesting that the SPR set up a scientific advisory panel composed of representatives of all relevant disciplines and an advisory editorial board to review publications for compliance with high technical standards. The paper is followed by comments from both Hasted and Brookes-Smith addressing the author’s critical points. PsiLine Hasted, John Brookes-Smith, Colin. COMMENTS, Journal 51, 1982, pp. 249-52. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Johnson, Mark. AN ATTEMPT TO SELECT FOR PSI ABILITY IN PARAMECIUM AURELIA, Journal 51, 1982, pp. 272-82. The aim of Experiment 1 was to select for precognitive ability in Paramecium aurelia. Three sets of apparatus involving two large flasks joined by a thick tube were used for three experimental conditions: a ‘precognitive’ condition, a ‘psychokinesis’ (PK) condition, and a control condition. Every 24 hours for 14 days each condition underwent a ‘trial’ in which, in the Precognitive and Psychokinesis groups, the paramecia contained in one of the two flasks were destroyed by boiling. In the PK group the flask to have its contents destroyed was randomly determined 24 hours before the trial occurred, whereas in the Precognitive group this was determined just after the tube connecting the flasks had been sealed off for a trial. In the Control group half the volume from each flask was destroyed. Results, in terms of the direction of the differences in population density between the flasks, did not suggest selection occurred for precognitive ability or any PK ability in the experimenter. Posthoc analysis, however, revealed a significant difference (p = .05) in the mean magnitude of population density difference between the flasks in the Precognitive group and those of the other two groups. In Experiment 2 an attempted replication of the results obtained by Richmond proved unsuccessful. DMILS/precognition/psychokinesis/experiments

Hearne, Keith M.T. AN AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR STUDYING PSI IN HOME ‘LUCID’ DREAMS, Journal 51, 1982, pp. 303-4. After a short introduction to dream telepathy and lucid dreaming, the author introduces a portable, battery powered unit capable of monitoring respiratory rate. The machine may be used by a ‘lucid dreamer’ who has been trained to radically alter his or her respiratory rate at the onset of a lucid dream. This device may then be connected, via a variety of mechanisms, to an automatic dialler that could be used to alert a ‘sender.’ An experimental session could then commence, during which a remote ‘sender’ would attempt to influence the content of the lucid dream. The dreamer would, presumably, record the contents of the dream upon awakening. Dream contents and target material could be compared at a later date. Interested ‘home’ experimenters are invited to contact the author for more information. PsiLine telepathy/dreams/experiments/methodology

Kiang, T. SIGHTED HANDS: A REPORT ON EXPERIMENTS WITH 4 CHINESE CHILDREN TO TEST THEIR ABILITY TO SEE COLOUR PICTURES AND SYMBOLS WITH THEIR HANDS, Journal 51, 1982, pp. 304-8. Three informal experiments with four Chinese children conducted at Peking University in the company of Mr. Chen Shouliang of that university are described. Targets were hidden in tin boxes and given to children who were requested to ‘read’ the contents of the tins with their hands. These experiments were similar to work previously reported in the Chinese Journal Ziran Zazhi (Nature Magazine). The children seemed to accomplish their tasks successfully in the first two experiments. In the third experiment, when the tins were sealed the results were of varying quality. The author enthusiastically endorses the paranormality of the results he witnessed. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 52, 1983, pp. 88-9. clairvoyance/synaesthesia/experiments

Randall, John L. & Davis, C.P. PARANORMAL DEFORMATION OF NITINOL WIRE: A CONFIRMATORY EXPERIMENT, Journal 51, 1982, pp. 368-73. This experiment was an attempt to replicate previous research carried out by Dr. Eldon Byrd with the subject Uri Geller. A schoolboy metal bender gently stroked a piece of nitinol wire which had previously been treated to ensure that it had a memory of straightness. Inexplicable deformations were observed, and the memory of the wire was permanently altered. Subsequent attempts to straighten the wire by heat treatment were unsuccessful. The authors conclude that their results provide a very satisfactory confirmation of the effects observed by Dr. Byrd. PsiLine CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 52, 1983, pp. 218-9; Journal 53, 1986, pp. 336-7. psychokinesis/experiments

Nash, Carroll B. ESP OF PRESENT AND FUTURE TARGETS, Journal 51, 1982, pp. 374-7. One purpose of the experiment was to determine whether subjects would score higher in clairvoyance or in precognition in a double blind test. A second objective was to determine whether the subject would score higher on targets in the time division of greater importance to him. Each of two experimenters tested 25 different subjects who made 200 calls apiece, each call being simultaneously directed to both a present and a future target. The targets were the randomly determined digits from 0 to 9. The combined results for the two experimenters showed scoring that was higher for the present targets than for the future targets, with psi hitting for the former and psi missing for the latter (td = 2.22, 49 df, ? < .05 twotailed). The results did not indicate that subjects scored higher on targets in the time division of greater importance to them. Reinforcement was indicated by the fact that when the present and future targets were alike they yielded a higher score than either did alone (chi square = 4.14, ? < .05). PsiLine claivoyance/precognition/experiments

Carr, Bernard J. AN EXPERIMENT TO DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN TELEPATHY AND CLAIRVOYANCE USING ISIHARA CARDS AND COLOUR-BLIND AGENTS, Journal 52, 1983, pp. 31-44. We examine the relative effectiveness of telepathy and clairvoyance when both can operate simultaneously but in different ways, by conducting an ESP experiment with colour-blind agents, colornormal percipients, and Isihara card targets. Since some of these cards appear differently to the agent and percipient when viewed with their natural vision, one can determine whether the percipient receives the target as observed by the agent (telepathy) or as he himself would observe it (clairvoyance). We find that, overall, the targets which are perceived identically by agent and percipient (i.e., the GESP targets) come across with high significance (p = .005); the telepathy targets come across with marginal significance (p = .01); and the clairvoyance results are close to chance. However, not all pairs of agents and percipients conform to these overall trends and some show other interesting features. For example, we find a significant (p = .0004) post hoc effect within clairvoyance whereby, for one agent, all the percipients psi-hit on one target and psi-miss on the other. PsiLine telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments

Grattan Guinness, I. A NOTE ON THE EFFICACY OF CONTROL OBJECTS IN PSI EXPERIMENTS, Journal 52, 1983, pp. 126-8. One of the techniques taken over by psychical research from experimental psychology is the use of control objects, including persons, against which the performance of the target object in the experiment is appraised. A defining property of a control object is well stated as: Control objects are immune from the effects being tested in the experiment. Psychical researchers seem to have adopted the notion of control without demure. However, does not the (apparent) nature of psi render dangerous the assumption of the immunity hypothesis in psychical research? For how can we be sure that the control objects are immune from extrasensory detection by the percipient (or by the experimenter) or anyone else involved in the experiment? The immunity hypothesis is not a safe assumption in psi experimentation. As an alternative I propose the ‘susceptibility hypothesis’: So-called ‘control’ objects are susceptible to psi influence during psi experiments. When this hypothesis is admitted, the consequences for theorizing about psi functioning are very serious. (They rebound on experimental psychology itself, where only prejudice grounds the assumption that psi is absent there; but that is the psychologist’s problem.) Studies need to be carried out on the behaviour of control objects in psi experiments. Several possibilities are suggested. Regrettably, none of them seem promising, for in order to obtain good results one would need the psi effect on the target objects to remain constant (in a sort of reversal of roles of target and control). However, there is little reason to think that the constant target effect would occur, even if the conditions on the target objects were kept as constant as possible; the unpredictability of psi rules this assumption out. It seems exceedingly difficult to refute the susceptibility hypothesis. The need to at least query the immunity hypothesis seems obvious. Why, then, is it not discussed by experimental psychical researchers? How can they confidently prefer the immunity hypothesis to the susceptibility hypothesis when control objects are used in psi experiments? PsiLine psi/experiments/methodology

BLACKMORE-SARGENT CONTROVERSY

Blackmore, Susan. [VISIT TO CARL SARGENT’S LABORATORY IN CAMBRIDGE], Journal 52, 1983, p. 155. Describes the circumstances of the author’s visit to Sargent’s laboratory and her subsequent criticisms of his working methods. psi/ganzfeld/experiments/methodology/cheating

Blackmore, Susan J. A REPORT OF A VISIT TO CARL SARGENT’S LABORATORY, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 186-98. Author’s abstract: In 1979 I visited the laboratory of Dr. Carl Sargent at the University of Cambridge, to observe highly successful ganzfeld psi experiments then in progress, I observed 13 sessions, of which six were direct hits. I considered whether the results might be accounted for by sensory leakage, experimental error, cheating or psi. I made observations of the sessions to test these hypotheses. The experimental design effectively ruled out sensory leakage. However, I observed several errors in the way the protocol was observed, Most of these occurred in the cumbersome randomization procedure. It was not clear how these errors came about. Their origin might have been clarified by either (a) a statement from Sargent or his colleagues, or (b) by reanalyses of the raw data. However neither has been made available. Sargent’s nine ganzfeld studies form a considerable portion of the total ganzfeld database. In view of Sargent’s unwillingness to explain the errors found, or to make his data available to other researchers, I suggest that these results should be viewed with caution. psi/ganzfeld/experiments/methodology/cheating

Harley, T. & Matthews, G. CHEATING, PSI AND THE APPLIANCE OF SCIENCE, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 199-207. Author’s abstract: Blackmore describes her visit to the Cambridge laboratory in 1979 and discusses evidence for what she calls a ‘cheating hypothesis’. This is that certain anomalies which she discovered are best accounted for in terms of experimenter cheating. We demonstrate that the so-called ‘cheating hypothesis’ is not a hypothesis in the traditional scientific sense of the world, and that she is guilty of extreme prejudice in her reporting of the events and in their interpretation. We then analyze some data which reflate her claims empirically. The best interpretation of events is also the most obvious - minor experimental error. psi/ganzfeld/experiments/methodology/cheating

Sargent, Carl. SCEPTICAL FAIRYTALES FROM BRISTOL, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 208-18. Sargent’s rejoinder, in which he analyses errors in Blackmore’s approach to his work, accusing her of ‘multiple deceptions’ and spreading ‘defamatory rumors and insinuations of fraud’. psi/ganzfeld/experiments/methodology/cheating

Parker, A. & Wiklund, N. THE GANZFELD EXPERIMENTS: TOWARDS AN ASSESSMENT, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 261-72. Support for Blackmore’s arguments that Sargent’s highly significant Ganzfeld results should be set aside. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 275-6. psi/ganzfeld/experiments/methodology/cheating

Harley, T.A. & Matthews, G. THROWING THE BATH WATER OUT WITH THE BABY: A REPLY TO PARKER AND WIKLUND AND TO BLACKMORE, Journal 55, 1988, pp. 84-85. Brief note finding further weaknesses in the attacks on Sargent. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 55, 1988, 39-40, p. 240, 307-9. psi/ganzfeld/experiments/methodology/cheating

END OF BLACKMORE-SARGENT CONTROVERSY

Kejeriwal, Prakesh. [NO PHANTOM-LEAF EFFECT AFTER ALL], Journal 52, 1984, pp. 333-4. An effect recently reported to a parapsychology conference, thought to be paranormal, is re-assessed in the light of suspicions against an operating assistant. aura/experiments/cheating

McLaren, I.P.L. et al. RESEARCH REPORT OF THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH (CUSPR), Journal 52, 1984, pp. 307-11. Three topics: 1) instrumentation being developed for use at RSPK sites. 2) The completion of a series of PK tests using spinning coins and GESP tests using concealed playing cards. CUSPR undertook the experiments to test claims of 100% success with similar tests by a Cambridge undergraduate investigator. Under controlled conditions, the authors did not obtain significant results. 3) Two investigations of an alleged haunting at Sawston Hall near Cambridge are described. Following a preliminary investigation by three CUSPR members, a team of eleven persons spent a night at the site.  No significant events were reported. PsiLine psychokinesis/hauntings/experiments

Blackmore, Susan.   ESP IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A CRITIQUE OF THE SPINELLI EVIDENCE, Journal 52, 1984, pp. 311-5. Critically evaluates eight recently published experiments that test predictions on the relationship of age and IQ to ESP performance. Blackmore describes some specific procedural flaws in some of Spinelli’s studies that may contribute to artifactual confirmation of the predictions. Although she believes some suggestive evidence for greater ESP among children does exist within the data, she feels confirmation requires more research. psi/experiments/methodology

Spinelli, Ernesto. ESP IN YOUNG CHILDREN: SPINELLI REPLIES, Journal 52, 1984, pp. 371-7. Argues that ‘Dr Blackmore’s criticisms are unwarranted and that the work I carried out [is] proper evidence for the existence of GESP in young children’. PsiLine psi/experiments/methodology

Cox, W.E.   MAGICIANS AND PARAPSYCHOLOGY, Journal 52, 1984, pp. 383-6. The author argues that the recent rise of interest in static PK precipitated by Serios, Kulagina, and Geller has provoked the question of how readily possible it may be for psi researchers to encounter undetected deceit and whether it would be useful to employ a conjuring consultant to monitor experiments. He quotes relevant statements made by Joseph Jastrow, Milbourne Christopher, Martin Gardner, and James Randi. He notes that, as regards hiring the services of a magician, any magician with an interest in being a consultant to a parapsychologist needs to pass certain qualifications for the job. Proper experimental designs with repeated safeguards can prevent slick hocus, whereas the talent and training of magicians may tend to militate against their open-mindedness toward the paranormal. The author recommends in such cases that they should serve as advisors rather than as monitors. PsiLine psychokinesis/magic/experiments/methodology

Jacobs, J.C. PK EXPERIMENTS WITH A TRUE AND A PSEUDO RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR, Journal 53, 1985, pp. 18-25. Author’s abstract: The author as subject performed to PK experiments to examine a claim of Helmut Schmidt’s: ‘PK operates as efficiently on pseudo RNG’s as on true RNG’s’ (Schmidt, 1981), and to test a contrasting prediction generated by Donald and Martin’s thermodynamic theory: ‘Higher significant levels will be achieved using truly random events than using pseudo random events’ (Donald and Martin, 1976). On a computer display screen the subject sees a white dot that jumps around a circle of 16 grey dots, alternately in clockwise and anticlockwise directions. An experimental run consists of 16 periods of light jumps in each of the two directions. The PK task is to lengthen the periods in which the lit dot jumps in a pre-determined target direction, and to shorten the non-target periods. Half of the trial periods were controlled by a true RNG, the other half by a pseudo RNG. A hit is defined as a light jump in the target direction, a miss as a jump in the non-target direction, the a priori probability that the direction of the motion reverses being 1/16. An experiment comprised 100 runs. The two experiments pooled together show a marginally significant effect for the true RNG condition: ? = 1.98 (p = .02) and non-significance for the pseudo RNG condition: ? = 1.04. The difference between conditions was non significant: t = .22 (df = 199). Control experiments, however, cast doubt on the randomness of the true RNG: a greater variance was found than theoretically expected. It is concluded that the results do not allow a differentiation between the predictions generated by Schmidt’s model and that of Donald and Martin. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Nash, Carroll B. CLAIRVOYANT DETERMINATION OF THE MOST FREQUENT OF FIVE CARDS, Journal 53, 1985, pp. 26-30. Author’s abstract: Three experimenters each performed a test of clairvoyance with 20 subjects for a total of 60 different subjects. Each subject attempted to call the most frequent card (MFC) in each of 100 sets of five cards, the sets being removed successively from the top of a randomly arranged, open, ESP deck. While the combined results of the three experiments were significant, the deviation was independently significant only in the results of one of them. Analysis of her results indicates that the ESP of the five cards was diametric and that the success in identifying the MFC carried directly with the difference between its frequency and the frequency of the next MFC in the set. The cards in the MFC hits had a higher proportional frequency of the next MFC in the set. The cards in the MFC hits had a higher proportional frequency in the two terminal positions of the five-card set than in the inner three. The results are interpreted to indicate that the ESP process took place by an act of diametric paranormal perception of the five cards, followed by normal psychophysiological determination of which of the cards was the most frequent. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 53, 1986, pp. 332-3. clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

Jacobs, J.C. PSI-GUIDED AWAKENING FROM SLEEP 1, Journal 53, 1985, pp. 159-68. Author’s abstract, edited: A reconstruction and evaluation is presented of home experiments carried out in the years 1951-1960 by the star South African subject W. van Vuurde. Mr van Vuurde was the subject of Professer Bleksley’s well-known experiments on ESP awakening from sleep (Bleksley, 1963, 1975). These experiments were undertaken on the basis of the highly significant results of the van Vuurde home experiments. Moreover, in 1978 the present author began further experiments with the same gifted subject: these are still in progress. Two phases can be distinguished in the experiments: 1) those in which he attempted to awake at predetermined target times known to him; 2) those in which he attempted to awake at predetermined target times unknown to him. It is concluded that the experiments confirmed the subject’s real-life observations that he was able to awake from sleep at a predetermined time. Although some of his correct awakenings might be attributed to a normal cause, this does not explain the relatively great excess of hits. volitional psi/experiments

Nelson, R.D. et al. OPERATOR-RELATED ANOMALIES IN PHYSICAL SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION PROCESSES, Journal 53, 1986, pp. 261-85. Author’s abstract: The Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research program addresses a selection of topics in consciousness-related anomalous phenomena of possible relevance to modern engineering practice. Using conventional instrumentation and data-processing equipment and techniques, this program endeavours to identify those engineering devices, systems and processes most likely to display operator-related anomalies in their performance, and to illuminate the characteristics of such aberrations. Three symbiotic sectors of effort are involved: the design, implementation, operation, and interpretation of experiments in low-level psychokinesis; the development of analytical methodologies for qualitative assessment of precognitive remote perception data; and the development of theoretical models useful for correlation of the experimental data, design of better experiments, and explication of the phenomena on fundamental grounds. The primary effect observed in the psychokinesis experiments is a marginal but replicable shift of the mean of frequency-of-count distributions with respect to empirical baselines or theoretical expectations, with no discernible alternations in any higher moments. These shifts can compound with considerable statistical regularity to high levels of significance over large data bases, depending on the particular operator, the direction of effort and other prevailing experimental conditions. The individual operator ‘signatures’ of achievement are remarkably characteristic and relatively insensitive to the particular experimental device. Computerized evaluation of a large remote perception data base reveals similar departures from chance expectation for the degree of target information acquired and indicates that the achievements are independent of spatial or temporal separation of the percipient and the target. Some portions of these results are accommodated by a quantum mechanical model of the interaction of consciousness with its physical environment. CORRECTION, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 89. psi/psychokinesis/experiments/methodology/theory

Hoebens, Piet Hein. COMPARISONS OF REPORTS OF THE ‘DENVER’ CHAIR TEST: A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE METHODS OF W H C TENHAEFF, Journal 53, 1986, pp. 311-20. Exposes discrepancies between the report of a 1969 experiment with Dutch clairvoyant Gerard Croiset by his principle investigator and an independent report by parapsychologist Jule Eisenbud, throwing doubt on the investigator’s work. In a following note, Eisenbud supports the claims, but reaffirms his belief that despite the suspicions they arouse the significant correspondences described by participants in the experiment would not be expected by chance. clairvoyance/precognition/experiments/methodology

Janin, Pierre. THE TYCHOSCOPE: A POSSIBLE NEW TOOL FOR PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTATION, Journal 53, 1986, pp. 341-7. Outlines the design of an instrument intended to elicit evidence of PK. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 54, 1987, p. 87. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Chauvin, Remy. A PK EXPERIMENT WITH MICE, Journal 53, 1986, pp. 348-51. A tychoscope is used in a PK experiment with significant results. psychokinesis/experiments/methdology/animal psi

Michels, J.A.G. CONSISTENT HIGH SCORING IN SELF-TEST PK EXPERIMENTS, USING A STOPPING STRATEGY, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 119-29. Author’s abstract: Self-test PK-experiments using a Random Bit Generator (RBG) are reported. The experiments were designed to investigate whether a stopping strategy, based on the assumption of cyclical ps behaviour, would yield repeated positive deviations from chance level scoring in PK-task. The a priori chance of a hit was 0-5. Highly significant deviations from chance were found (Overall 24,494 trials with an excess of 630 hits, ? = 8.05). Other experimenter/subjects scored at chance level in replication experiments. A computer simulation, with the stopping strategy but without feedback, yielded no significant deviations from chance. It is concluded that the stopping strategy as such is not effective in producing PK: it is effective only when used by a specific experimenter/subject.       Further experiments will be carried out to investigate the nature of the consistent deviations from chance scoring. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Hearne, Keith M.T. A DREAM-TELEPATHY STUDY USING A HOME ‘DREAM MACHINE’, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 139-42. Author’s abstract: A home ‘dream-telepathy’ study was conducted over 8 non-consecutive nights, using a female Subject. The Subject was woken automatically during REM sleep, in the latter half of the experimental night, but means of a ‘dream machine’ invented by the author. Using target material prepared by an assistant, the Experimenter attempted to convey a picture (randomly selected from a set of 8 on each experimental night) to the Subject, hoping to introduce a similar picture-content into the Subject’s dreams. Experimenter-Sender and Subject were separated by some 150 miles. It was found that the Subject ranked only 3 of the 8 targets in the top 4 rank-positions for that night, and none was a direct hit (ie. ranked 1). The results therefore provided no evidence of psi under the circumstances stated. telepathy/dreams/experiments

Nash, Carroll B. THE POSSIBLE DETECTION OF CERVICAL CANCER BY ESP, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 143-4. Author’s abstract: In a previous study, patients biopsied because of suspected cervical cancer were interviewed before the biopsy result was revealed. Concerned patients were found to use fewer hope-connotative words and more hopeless-connotative words in the interview if the subsequently revealed biopsy result was positive than if it was negative. ESP of the cancer is offered as a possible explanation of the relationship between the patients’ use of these words and the subsequently disclosed malignancy. psi/experiments

Jacobs, J.C. PSI-GUIDED AWAKENING FROM SLEEP II, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 169-80. Author’s abstract: An experimental study is reported which investigates whether persons who express high confidence in their ability to wake from sleep at a predetermined and known time perform better in a psi-waking task than persons with low confidence. This is an exploration of ways to find new high scoring subjects. 15 high and 15 low confident subjects participated. They were selected on the basis of a questionnaire. A three experimenter design was used to prevent treatment differences between groups. For the duration of one year, each subject tried to wake at target times (range 1.00-5.59 a.m.) set by the main experimenter. Three types of hit were defined: wake time = target time plus or minus 1 minute) and 5-minute-error hits (rounded wake time = target time plus or minus 2,3,4 or 5 minutes). The only difference for zero-error hits was in the hypothesized direction: ? (diff) = 1.50, ? < = .06. One high confident subject obtained 5 sero-error hits, MCE = .84, ? < .002. The lack of really significant results is discussed in terms of too short a test period, insufficient contrast between high and low confident subjects and the self report basis of subject classification. This latter seemed to an important degree to be determined by differences in sleep patterns. volitional psi/experiments

Delanoy, Deborah L. WORK WITH A FRAUDULENT PK METAL-BENDING SUBJECT, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 247-56. Author’s abstract: This paper details work conducted with a self-alleged metal-bender over a seven and a half month period in 1983/84. The subject, a most cooperative and helpful 17 year old male, stated he had the ability to bend metal objects at will. During the course of our work the subject also claimed to develop fire-raising abilities. Our work included attempts at controlled metal-bending, micro PK, fire-raising, and metal-bending whilst in the ganzfeld. Throughout our work the subject was unable to produce any PK under thoroughly-controlled conditions. Eventually, by means of a hidden camera, the subject was caught engaging in fraudulent activity and latterly confessed to being a practising magician. The discussion stresses the necessity for researchers never to forget the possibility that their subjects may be presenting deceptive data. Deceptive activity by subjects is considered, as well as ways in which researchers may contribute unconsciously to their own deception. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 55, 1988, p. 107-9. psychokinesis/experiments/cheating

Nash, Carroll B. A BLIND-TARGET PK DIE TEST WITH FUTURE TARGETS, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 257-60. Author’s abstract: Thirty-three subjects were each tested by one of two experimenters in rolling dice so that their terminal faces would coincide with future targets. The targets were selected from a random number table entered on the basis of a future Dow Jones Industrial closing average. The intersubject variance was significantly higher than the theoretical value with one experimenter and significantly lower with the other. psychokinesis/precognition/experiments

Smythies, John R. PSYCHOMETRY AND MESCALINE, Journal 54, 1987, pp. 266-8. Describes an informal 1950 experiment which attempted to induce psi by giving the subject a hallucinogen. The subject’s visions failed to include any details of the objects intended to be revealed at a distance, but did suggest clairvoyant awareness of the house in which the target objects were placed. psi/experiments/methodology

Peoch, René. CHICKEN IMPRINTING AND THE TYCHOSCOPE: AN ANPSI EXPERIMENT, Journal 55, 1988, pp. 1-9. Author’s abstract: We have here described the influence of chickens on a mobile random event generator (tychoscope) moving at random in all directions. We found (1) that isolated chicks which have been imprinted with the tychoscope are able to exert some degree of attraction on it if they are prevented from indulging in a following response (p less than 10-7). Chicks that are not so imprinted have no effect on its random movements (p greater than 0.35). (2) Chicks tested in groups of 15 also exerted a signficant effect on the tychoscope (p less than 10-9) even though they had not been imprinted. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 55, 1988, pp. 163-5. animal psi/experiments

Chauvin, Remy. ‘BUILT UPON WATER’ PSYCHOKINESIS AND WATER COOLING, Journal 55, 1988, pp. 10-15. Author’s abstract: The author reports his observations on his own attempts to accelerate water-cooling by psychokinesis. This special kind of PK appears to be affected by cylindrical aluminium screens and magnetic fields. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 55, 1988, p. 105; Journal 56, 1989, pp. 58-61. psychokinesis/experiments

Saklani, Alok. PRELIMINARY TESTS FOR PSI-ABILITY IN SHAMANS OF FARHWAL HIMALAYA, Journal 55, 1988, pp. 60-70. Author’s abstract: Shamans all over the world perform various services (healing a person, locating a lost item etc.) for their clients/devotees, and claim to possess paranormal abilities. These abilities are yet to be scientifically established. After an initial screening of five Shamans in Garwhal, one Shaman found suitable for studies was selected for further tests. The Token-Object tests in Proxy and tests for PK (Psychokinesis) abilities on a solvent (methanol) yielded non-significant results. However, preliminary tests for PK on plants indicated an ability to influence plants and saline solution. psi/DMILS/experiments

Barham, Allan. DR W J CRAWFORD, HIS WORK AND HIS LEGACY IN PSYCHOKINESIS, Journal 55, 1988, pp. 113-38. Author’s abstract: This is the first of two articles which are concerned with research in psychokinesis. The second article, to be published later, gives examples of the work done by Kenneth Batcheldor and Colin Brookes-Smith, together with a brief account of some current work in the same field. The present article was written partly because of the influence which Crawford had on the two researchers mentioned above, but chiefly because Crawford - if the contents of the three books which he wrote can be regarded as factual - carried out experiments which are among the most significant in psychical research. Evidence for the acceptance or rejection of Crawford’s work is discussed. The article also refers to other workers in psychokinesis who were active about the time when Crawford performed his experiments and wrote his books, a resume of which will be found below. William Jackson Crawford, Doctor of Science and lecturer in mechanical engineering, died tragically in 1920 at the age of thirty-nine after performing what were perhaps the most remarkable experiments in psychokinesis that have been recorded. Dr Eric Dingwall, at one time Research Officer of the SPR - and buy no means a lenient critic of what he considered to be careless work - did not approve in some respects of the way in which Crawford had conducted his research: yet he had this to say of him (Volume 32 of the Proceedings of the SPR, 1921-22) ‘The works he has left can scarcely fail to be regarded in the future as the most important contributions towards the study of telekinesis which have appeared to the time that their author met his untimely end. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 55, 1988, pp. 168-70. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Barham, Allan. THE CRAWFORD LEGACY PART II: RECENT RESEARCH IN MACRO-PK WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE WORK OF BATCHELDOR AND BROOKES-SMITH, Journal 55, 1988, pp. 196-207. Author’s abstract: This article is chiefly concerned with the pioneering work of the late Kenneth Batcheldor and the late Colin Brookes-Smith and it demonstrates certain similarities between their experiments and those of W. J. Crawford. The three researchers all worked with close-knit groups and, although they were scientifically trained, they chose ‘home conditions’ for their experiments. The importance of the group’s belief in the reality of the phenomena cannot be overemphasised as both Batcheldor and Brookes-Smith stressed. Crawford’s group were, of course, dedicated spiritualists. Crawford himself did not need such belief. His experiments, described in Part 1 (July issue), appeared to him to leave no loophole for doubt. There were interesting differences between the methods adopted by these three men. Crawford used all the controls he thought necessary to prevent possible fraud. Batcheldor, on the other hand, was strongly of the opinion that any foolproof control would inhibit the manifestations that were his primary concern. Brookes-Smith, for his part, found a middle course. He used electronic controls but as unobtrusively as possible. He agreed that this might adversely affect the phenomena but felt that, without some such control, Batcheldor’s theories stood little chance of being taken seriously. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Markwick, Betty. RE-ANALYSIS OF SOME FREE-RESPONSE DATA, Journal 55, 1988, pp. 220-22. Concludes from an independent statistical analysis that changes made by Susan Blackmore to the design of psi experiments conducted by her were unnecessary and that significant results in the first experiment, before the changes, were not due to a flaw, as Blackmore argues. psi/experiments/methodology

Hearne, Keith M.T. A NATIONWIDE MASS DREAM-TELEPATHY EXPERIMENT, Journal 55, 1989, pp. 271-4. Author’s abstract: A mass dream-telepathy experiment was designed by the author, at short notice, for inclusion in an article in a national newspaper. The author acted as ‘Sender’ between midnight and 10 am, on a specified night. A different target-picture was randomly selected from a choice of two, on each hour. A total of 511 dream-reports were received from readers, who also stated the time of waking from each dream. Two judges, who were unaware of the target sequence, were employed to decide which of the 2 pictures for each hour corresponded more closely with the dream reports. The total decisions for each picture determined which one of each pair was the popular ‘guess’. Six of the overall ‘guesses’ corresponded with the 10-part ‘head or tail’ target sequence. Thus, the results were not statistically significant I p - 0.38, 1-tailed, and assuming hit probability = 0.5). telepathy/dreams/experiments

Hearne, Keith M.T. A FORCED-CHOICE REMOTE-VIEWING EXPERIMENT, Journal 55, 1989, pp. 275-8. Author’s abstract: A woman who reported that she thought she could often locate a friend at a distance by paranormal means, was tested in a force-choice remote viewing experiment. The woman attempted, at 12 specific times, to locate her friend, who was positioned at one of two randomly selected places - familiar to both participants. The results at face value provided no evidence to support her claim, although a post-hoc inspection showed that 9 out of 10 of the target-guess pairs were correct, 2 trials ahead (displacement). Unfortunately, relationship problems between the woman and her friend prevented a further investigation. clairvoyance/experiments

Breederveld, H. THE MICHELS EXPERIMENTS: AN ATTEMPTED REPLICATION, Journal 55, 1989, pp. 360-63. Author’s abstract: The present author carried out several experiments to replicate Michel’s highly successful self-test PK-experiments using a random bit generator. An exact replication (series) did not yield an above MCE score. Nor did two minor modifications (4 and 8 series) produce better results. Finally, however, a modification was devised which produced a significant outcome in 5 standard series. In 10 137 trials 5 213 hits were scored: ? (one tailed) = 0.002. psychokinesis/experiments

Nash, Carroll B. INTRA-EXPERIMENT AND INTRA-SUBJECT DECLINES IN ‘EXTRA-SENSORY PERCEPTION AFTER SIXTY YEARS’, Journal 55, 1989, pp. 412-6. Author’s abstract: In a meta-analysis of the results of ESP tests published from 1882 to 1939 extracted in the book Extra-sensory Perception After Sixty Years, the scoring rate was found to be negatively correlated to the length of the experiment and to the average length of the experiment. This was interpreted to indicate intra-experiment decline and intra-subject decline, respectively. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 56, 1990, pp. 104-5. ERRATA, Journal 56, 1990, p. 127. psi/experiments/methodology

Johnson, Mark H. IMPRINTING AND ANPSI: AN ATTEMPT TO REPLICATE PEOCH (1988), Journal 55, 1989, pp. 417-9. Experiments with a tychoscope that yielded significant results are not confirmed in this independent attempt at replication. The author notes that his method differed from Peoch’s in using a smaller sample and in other ways. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 56, 1989, pp. 62-3; Journal 56, 1990, pp. 251-2. animal psi/experiments

Harley, Trevor A. PSI MISSING IN A DREAM CLAIRVOYANCE EXPERIMENT, Journal 56, 1989, pp. 1-7. Author’s abstract: In an exploratory study of clairvoyance in the dream state, the author acted as a single subject in 20 dreaming sessions. Dream material was recorded throughout the night and expanded the following morning. The dream transcript was judged against four pictures from a pool of 200. The dream transcript was used to rank and rate the pictures in order of correspondence with the dream material. The target had been selected in a double-blind fashion the preceding evening, but had been kept locked and sealed until the judging was complete. Target rankings by the subject were not significant, but the ratings were significantly below chance. Both the rankings and ratings of an independent judge were significantly below chance. The correlation between the scoring of the two judges was significant. Various other effects in the data are discussed. In particular, a decline from chance to psi missing was found within each night’s dreaming and throughout the experiment. clairvoyance/dreams/experiments

Jacobs, J.C. & Michels, J.A.G. PSI-GUIDED AWAKENING FROM SLEEP, Journal 56, 1989, pp. 8-14. Authors’ abstract: From a previous experiment on psi-guided awakening from sleep (Jacobs, 1987) four subjects were selected who could be labelled potential high scorers in a paranormal waking task, and four subjects who could be tagged potential low-scorers. Here, a follow-up experiment with these eight subjects is reported. It was huypothesized that the potential high scorers would obtain higher scores than the potential low-scorers in a paranormal waking task. In addition a positive test-rest correlation was hypothesized. During six months the subjects tried to wake every night at an individual target time (range 1.00-5.59 a.m., inclusive). A two experimenter design was used. The potential high -scorers scored above chance level and the potential low-scorers below; however, the difference was not significant (P<= 0.13). The test-retest correlation was non-significant and even in the wrong direction (r = 0.24). It is concluded that if a psi-guided wake ability exists, the effect is very small and unstable. volitional psi/experiments

Millar, Brian. STATISTICS OF STOPPING STRATEGIES: MICHELS AND BREEDERVELD EXPERIMENTS, Journal 56, 1989, pp. 15-22. Author’s abstract: The question explored here is whether the standard Z-score approximation to the binomial can validly be applied to experiments using a stopping strategy. The distributions resulting from stopping strategies are first examined in general. Monte Carlo simulations of the experiments of Michels and Breederveld are then presented. In the Michels case, ? is unbiased and is adequately normal for 5 or more stopping sets. For Breederveld, ? is slightly biased but the standard normal is still a sufficiently good approximation for 10 or more sets. psi/experiments/methodology

Berger, Rick E. & Spinelli, Ernesto. A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE SPINELLI DISSERTATION DATA, Journal 56, 1989, pp. 28-38. Re-examination of highly significant data from psi experiments with children offers no suggestion that it has been tampered with, but shows patterns that the author believes are more strongly indicative of experimental artifact than of psi. In reply the experimenter acknowledges that his work cannot fulfill his aim of providing a foolproof psi experiment but hopes it provides hints as to what psi might be and how it operates. psi/experiments/methodology

Markwick, Betty. THE SPINELLI DATABASE, Journal 56, 1990, pp. 225-8. Claims to remove one of Berger’s statistical objections to Spinelli’s work (Berger, Rick E. & Spinelli, Ernesto. A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE SPINELLI DISSERTATION DATA, Journal 56, 1989, pp. 28-38), and provide a potential explanation to a second subject to examination of the raw data. Berger reaffirms his uneasiness at the ‘unbelievable’ statistical results. psi/experiments/methodology

Gissurarson, Loftur Reimar. COMMENTS ON FEEDBACK IN THE LITERATURE OF PSI TRAINING, Journal 56, 1990, pp. 91-96. Author’s abstract: Some comments are offered on the concept of ‘feedback’ in Tart’s ESP feedback training method. The conclusion is drawn that the idea of providing immediate feedback of results in ESP tests as a method of training of ESP abilities fails to test opérant conditioning because the analogy with principles of animal learning is incorrect. psi/experiments/methodology

Cassirer, Manfred. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 56, 1990, pp. 186-7. Draws attention to an article in the Freiberg Zeitschrift which describes the Russian medium Nina Kulagina’s vindication in court where she had been suing for libel. psychokinesis/experiments

Chauvin, Remy & Varjean, Benjamin. IS IT POSSIBLE TO STRENGTHEN THE PSI EFFECT USING A VERY WEAK MAGNETIC FIELD?, Journal 56, 1990, pp. 96-7. Brief experiment which uses a simplified model of Jahn and Dunne’s ‘mechanical cascade’ with the aim of trying to improve or inhibit PK using an electromagnetic field. No significant effects, but some interesting results and pointers to future work in this area. psi/electromagnetism/experiments/methodology

Kappers, J., et al. RESUMING WORK WITH PAVEL STEPANEK, Journal 56, 1990, pp. 138-147. Authors’ abstract: The reintroduction of hypnosis in parapsychology as a means to introduce or facilitate ESP led to the discovery by Milan Ryzl from Prague of a star subject, Pavel Stepanek, at the beginning of the sixties, who performed with alternative but continued success at colour guessing for 12 years in succession with many different experimenters. Because of adverse circumstances this series had to be interrupted. After an interval of 17 years, experiments could be resumed in Amsterdam, but gave no indication of persisting psi-abilities. Some data about the use of hypnosis in parapsychology and about the former work with Stepanek are given before stating the experimental results. clairvoyance/experiments

Morgan, K. & Morris, Robert L. A REVIEW OF APPARENTLY SUCCESSFUL METHODS FOR THE ENHANCEMENT OF ANOMALOUS PHENOMENA, Journal 58, 1991, pp. 1-9. The authors present a selected review of apparently successful examples of applied parapsychological studies over the sixty years that have passed since Dr J.B. Rhine founded the modern scientific era of parapsychology. They examine signal-enhancement techniques, such as multiple guessing and internal message checks, the latter in cases of dowsing, casino-oriented trials, telepathic transmission and electronic calculation. The alternative of enhancing the receiver’s sensitivity is briefly examined. The paper concludes with a summary of what are felt to be promising directions for future research. psi/experiments/methodology

Scofield, A.M. & Hodges, R.D. DEMONSTRATION OF A HEALING EFFECT IN THE LABORATORY USING A SIMPLE PLANT MODEL, Journal 57, 1991, pp. 321-43. Authors’ abstract: The ability of a healer to stimulate the germination and growth of cress seeds stressed overnight in saline solution was tested in a series of trials in which the assessment of growth was conducted blind, In six of the seven trials significant differences in the growth of the seedlings were found between the healing and non-healing groups. Observations on treated seeds suggest that the healer may speed the efflux of salt from the seeds. The model is simple, well controlled and capable of further development. DMILS/healing/experiments

McCusker, B. & Sutherland, C. PROBABILITY AND THE PSYCHE, 1) A REPRODUCIBLE EXPERIMENT USING TAROT, AND THE THEORY OF PROBABILITY, Journal 57, 1991, pp. 344-54. Authors’ abstract: In fourteen runs by eight different experimenters, each run of one year’s duration, we have confirmed the earlier results of Dr Jane English and her co-workers that the distribution of over 1,000 selections from the face downward spread of a Tarot deck is not in accordance with the predictions of classical probability theory. We compare this result with other experiments using different techniques and also some large discrepancies found in other branches of physics. psi/experiments/methodology

Lepes, Ivan T. A PSI EFFECT WITH THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER FLY, Journal 58, 1992, pp. 181-8. Author’s Abstract: Presents a tentative method for selecting from a population of Drosiphila melanogaster flies individuals with a probable capacity for non-sensorial communication with each other. The communication sought was the transmission of a message associating food with light or dark. The statistical analysis of the tests performed has yielded several significant results. CORRESPONDENCE, p. 404. DMILS/animal psi/experiments

Schmeidler, Gertrude R. & Imich, Alexander. FORMAL AND INFORMAL WORK WITH PETER SUGLERIS, Journal 58, 1992, pp. 239-43. Authors’ Abstract: In informal condition, Peter Sugleris seems to show strong macro-PK and ESP ability. He participated in six sessions of formal tests for macro-PK, micro-PK and ESP under conditions that he had approved in advance. The formal tests yielded null or non-significant results. Some post hoc analyses of his micro-PK data are provocative, as are events that occurred under non-test conditions. psi/experiments

Sijde, P.C.Van der & Snel, F.W.J.J. PSI AND RELAXATION: AN ATTEMPT TO REPLICATE, Journal 58, 1992, pp. 244-9. Authors’ abstract: Reports on the replication of an experiment on psi and relaxation. Subjects in two experimental series and two experimental conditions (relaxation-tension) were compared on their ability to predict the Dutch lotto-numbers the Sunday after the experiment, when the lotto-numbers would be drawn in a live broadcast on television. It appeared that there were no significant differences between the conditions and only a marginally significant result was found between the subjectively-experienced degrees of relaxation (or tension). precognition/experiments/methodology

Saklani, Alok. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES OF PK EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH, Journal 58, 1992, pp. 258-65. Author’s abstract: Subjects who had successfully demonstrated PK abilities in previous studies were given further tests. When subjects failed to repeat their performances, barley, which is linked to local beliefs and customs, was selected as the test material instead of the wheat grains used so far. All five subjects tested for PK succeeded in influencing the growth of plants and one of them who was given a second test replicated results. DMILS/experiments/methodology

Cox, W.E. SOME EXTREMELY SIGNIFICANT SCORES PRODUCED BY RECURRENT PK, Journal 58, 1992, pp. 353-62. Author’s abstract: Two decks of ESP cards were randomized and sealed, each by an external préparer whom I had solicited rather than by myself. Successful preliminary runs had occurred at the home of J. T. Richards in Rolla, Missouri, using an ESP-cum-PK technique. Three means of eliciting these calls are first described: (a) by verbal solicitation of paranormal floor raps which could then be taken to indicate the relevant ESP symbol using a standard code; (b) by a typewritten message soliciting ‘direct writing’, using a pen and paper provided, that would identify the card order of a sealed deck placed nearby; (c) by direct paranormal recording of rap-like sounds onto an audio-cassette (without benefit of tape recorder) to indicate the card order of a sealed deck. This last method is a novel electromagnetic form of RPK. Two formal runs, each with an American préparer, which are described below, achieved almost perfect scores. A third, prepared in Edinburgh (see Wiseman, Beloff & Morris in this issue, with a subsequent commentary by myself), achieved only chance scoring. psi/psychokinesis/experiments

Wiseman, Richard et al. TESTING THE ESP CLAIMS OF SORRAT, Journal 58, 1992, pp. 363-77. Authors’ abstract: Describes a recent reassessment of the ESP ability that a well-known parapsychologist (Ed Cox) attributes to the spirit ‘entities’ which he claims communicate with the Society for Research in Rapport and Telekinesis (SORRAT). The paper first notes how Cox claimed that these ‘entities’ were able to divine the order of a sealed deck of ESP cards. The paper then outlines how an initial pilot study was refused by Cox, in favour of more formal experimentation. The design of this formal experiment is then outlined, emphasising the controls that were employed to counter potential subject cheating. The experimenters randomised a deck of ESP cards and noted their resulting order. These cards were then sealed and dispatched to Cox. The ‘entities’ attempted to divine the order of the sealed deck, and Cox then returned this predicted card order and the sealed deck to the experimenters. The order of the cards was then compared with the order predicted by the ‘entities’. The ‘entities’ failed on three counts. First, the deck was not returned to the experimenters by a deadline designated before the experiment. Second, when the deck was eventually returned, the ‘entities’ obtained only 8 hits (p=0.11, one tail). Third, the ‘entities’ claimed to have paranormally rearranged the order of the cards in the target deck. However, when the deck was opened, all 25 cards were in the same order as when they were dispatched by the experimenters. Finally, the paper discusses the implications of this experiment for future work with SORRAT. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 59, pp. 231-2. psi/experiments/methdology

Cox, W.E. MY COMMENTS ON RICHARD WISEMAN’S FINDINGS, Journal 58, 1992, pp. 378-9. Cox attributes the failure of the study (Wiseman, Richard et al. TESTING THE ESP CLAIMS OF SORRAT, Journal 58, 1992, pp. 363-77) to ‘the conspicuous officiousness’ in the preparation of the card deck, which he suggests created an unfavourable psychological climate. psi/experiments/methodology

Green, Patrick R. & Thorpe, Paul H. TESTS FOR PK EFFECTS IN IMPRINTED CHICKS, Journal 59, 1993, pp. 48-60. Authors’ abstract: In four experiments, chicks were imprinted on an object (either a flashing light or another chick) and then tested in a procedure where the appearance of the imprinted object was controlled by a solid-state random-noise generator. The hypothesis that chicks can use a PK capacity to increase above chance the time for which they are exposed to an imprinted object was supported in only one of the four experiments. The inconsistent results could not be explained in terms of either experimenter effects or physical effects of chicks’ behaviour on the RNG. It is concluded that there is presently no evidence for PK effects in chicks where the appearance of an imprinted object is controlled by an RNG. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 59, pp. 233-4. animal psi/experiments/methodology

Blackmore, Susan J. ESP AND THOUGHT CONCORDANCE IN TWINS: A METHOD OF COMPARISON, Journal 59, 1993, pp. 89-96. Author’s abstract: A method is described for comparing the ability of twins, siblings or unrelated pairs of subjects to use either ESP or similarities in their thinking and choice of targets to obtain hits. In one condition (the thought-concordance condition) similarity of thought can yield above-chance scoring, in a second condition (the ESP condition) it cannot. Preliminary results, reported here, suggest a strong effect of thouthgt concordance but not of ESP. The implications for claims of psychic experience between twins are discussed. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Lounds, Paul. THE INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOKINESIS ON THE RANDOMLY-GENERATED ORDER OF EMOTIVE AND NON-EMOTIVE SLIDES, Journal 59, 1993, pp. 187-93. Author’s abstract: Examines the influence of PK on the observed order of picture slides with an emotive content, compared with that of slides of a non-emptive nature, where the sequence is otherwise random as governed by an RNG. It also looks to see if there are individual or overall PK effects with respect to chance. Subjects attempted to cause their favourite slide to be shown and not their three least-liked, corresponding to a 1,2,3, or 4 from the RNG; or, similarly, tried to display a slide showing a number one, rather than the three alternative numbers. There was no significant difference between the conditions of emotive and non-emotive slides. However, there was a significant combined effect, i.e. in the generation of ‘Is’, pooled from both trials, compared with the quantity expected randomly, and it was also shown that some PK effect aided the elicitation of favourite slides in preference to non-favourites. The findings were discussed in the problematic context of the phenomena of psi target and stimulus. Experimental limitations, interfering factors, and suggestions for future studies to elucidate the essence of the emotion-PK relationship are also outlined. psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Gurtovoy, G.K. & Parkhomov, A.G. REMOTE MENTAL INFLUENCE ON BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL SYSTEMS, Journal 59, 1993, pp. 241-58. Authors’ abstract: Experiments on the remote mental influence of a person on animate and inanimate systems with instrumental recording of the effects are described. In experiments with fish generating orientation electric pulses, an increase in the intervals between the pulses was recorded, whereas a decrease in the inter-pulse intervals is usually observed in the response of the fish to external stimuli. Based on numerous tests with shielded micro calorimeters and ultra-low-frequency electric noise generators, located at distances of up to several thousand kilometres from the human operator, some conclusions regarding peculiarities of human ‘distant influence’ are inferred. The method for the statistical processing of the data is described. psi/experiments/methodology

Vaughan, A. & Houck, J. A ‘SUCCESS’ TEST OF PRECOGNITION AND ATTITUDE TOWARD THE FUTURE, Journal 59, 1993, pp. 259-68. Authors’ abstract: A computerized precognition test, Psychic Reward, was developed as a test of success potential, An Attitude Toward the Future (ATF) questionnaire was designed to test the hypothesis that future-oriented people should have a significantly greater number of significant (p<0.048) 30-trial precognition scores than past-oriented people. ‘Short form’ 30-trial Psychic Reward software was programmed by Houck for the tests, for which Vaughan was the experimenter. A total of 83 subjects in five groups achieved an overall significant (z = 2.09, ? = 0.018, one tailed) number of significant scores. The Future group scored significantly (z = 2.02, ? = 0.022, one tailed) above the Past group. Comparison of ATF extremes showed significant support (z = 2.02) for the ATF hypothesis. ATF extremes for Fate readers achieved a significant difference (z = 1.98, ? = 0.024), as predicted by the ATF hypothesis. The Fate Future group was independently significant ( z = 2.19, ? = 0.014, one-tailed). Our data tentatively suggest that people who are future-oriented are significantly better at predicting the future than those who are past-oriented. precognition/experiments/methodology

Radin, D., McAlpine, S. & Cunningham, S. GEOMAGNETISM AND PSI IN THE GANZFELD, Journal 59, 1994, pp. 352-63. Authors’ abstract: Prior literature suggests that psi perception may be better when the planetary geomagnetic field is relatively quiet. This possible geomagnetic-psi relationship was analyzed in two ganzfeld psi-experiments, one with normal and the other with creatively-talented participants. Both ganzfeld experiments consisted of 32 sessions. The experiment using a normal population resulted in a chance-expected hit rate of exactly 25%; the creative population resulted in a hit rate of 41% (exact binomial ? = 0.016). For the normal population, when psi performance was better, geomagnetic field fluctuations were lower (p = <0.001, two-tailed). The opposite was observed in the creative population: better psi performance was associated with higher geo-magnetic fluctuations (p<0.05, two-tailed). Differences in methods of studying geomagnetism-psi relationships are discussed. psi/ganzfeld/electromagnetisni/experiments

Carvalho, Andre Percia de. SOME SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PSI, Journal 59, 1994, pp. 364-7. Author’s abstract: Since 1991 the author has been writing about possible relationships between psi and psychodynamics (Carvalho, 1991; 1992a; 1992b). In this paper it is contended that, in the light of such relationships, we need a drastic review of the ways in which psi manifests itself inside or outside the laboratory. Although other authors have likewise called attention to the psychological aspects of psi (Roll, 1974; Ullman, 1976; Palmer, 1977; Gauld & Cornell, 1979; Rhine, 1981), more needs to be said. psi/personality/experiments/methodology/theory

Snel, F.W.J.J. & Sijde, P.C.van der. ON THE RECOGNITION OF PARANORMAL HEALERS: DOES IT TAKE ONE TO KNOW ONE, Journal 59, 1994, pp. 413-19. Authors’ abstract: Twelve paranormally gifted subjects and six non-gifted subjects were asked to rate 171 photographs of persons on their ‘paranormal giftedness.’ Among these were photographs of paranormal healers (n = 42), nursing staff (n = 56) and people who served as a control group (n = 73). The aim of this study was to investigate the claim of several organizations of professional healers that a board of experienced paranormal healers is able to identify the paranormal ‘ability’ (faculty) in others, and that a screening by this board is a valid method by which to accept or refuse people as apprentice healers and future members. The results show that gifted subjects are unable to differentiate between the three groups of people; non-gifted subjects score in the same range. The gifted subjects, however, made a few striking and verifiable remarks about some of the people in the photographs. It is because of such observations that the ‘myth’ (that one needs to possess a certain faculty to be able to recognize that same faculty in others) lives on. healing/personality/experiments

Cox, W.E. EXCEPTIONAL EVIDENCE OF ESP BY A REPUTED SENSITIVE, Journal 60, 1994, pp. 16-28. Author’s abstract: Mr Olaf Jonsson, who emigrated to the United States in 1953, had been known in Sweden for both GESP and parapsychological abilities. Only the former are here surveyed, using ESP decks. Claims by the author-investigator include extremely significant scores. Conditions of security against sensory cues (‘informal’, ‘formal’ and ‘crucial’) are described. So are Jonsson’s personal habits of occasional peeking when possible. This tendency has caused some critics to hold negative overall opinions about him, regardless of the better-controlled tests, which indeed had shown large deviations from chance. This unpublished paper is offered as the result of recent ‘event-related brain potential’ studies of Jonsson by N. Don and associates, which was reported to the Parapsychological Association in 1987 and subsequently. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 186-9. psi/experiments/cheating

Milton, Julie. GUESSING STRATEGIES AND CONFIDENCE-CALL CRITERIA OF UNINSTRUCTED PARTICIPANTS IN A FORCED-CHOICE ESP EXPERIMENT, Journal 60, 1994, pp. 65-77. Author’s abstract: One hundred and three people took part in a forced choice ESP test conducted by mail. The study was designed to establish the characteristics of uninstructed subjects’ preferred cognitive strategies for producing and detecting ESP-related responses in a forced-choice setting, to identify what factors might influence their preferences, and to examine whether participants; choice of strategies related to their ESP performance. The findings suggest that many participants in forced-choice studies may be adopting maladaptive cognitive strategies in an effort to produce spontaneous guesses. The implications for current forced-choice research practice and future research on cognitive strategies are discussed. ERRATUM, p. 182. psi/experiments/methodology

Lepes, Ivan & Argibay, Juan C. POSSIBLE PSI EFFECT WITH DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, Journal 60, 1994, pp. 78-85. Authors’ abstract: Introduces a series of experiments from which it would be reasonable to conclude that there exists a psi effect between the individuals of a Drosophila melanogastger population which had been selected for the purpose thereof for many generations. The psi effect takes places in a similar way at five or a thousand metres’ distance between the populations. The method enables one to obtain for breeding purposes a large number of flies which give better results in this kind of test. DMILS/experiments

Zilberman, Mark S. PUBLIC NUMERICAL LOTTERIES: AN INTERNATIONAL PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT COVERING A DECADE, Journal 60, 1995, pp. 149-60. Author’s abstract: The results of public numerical lotteries were studied as a global experiment for investigating ESP abilities. Their attraction is that they afford a colossal statistical base which is totally independent of the investigator. A comparison of the True Predictions Density in the public numerical lotteries of France and the USSRY with day-by-day planetary indices of Geomagnetic Activity from 1980-89 showed that: a) on days of low geomagnetic activity the true predictions density differs significantly from its density on days of high geomagnetic activity (p<0.002) b) On days of low geomagnetic activity the true predictions density significantly exceeds chance expectation (p < 0.003). c) The true predictions density correlates significantly with geomagnetic activity on the draw days but not on the days before and after (p < 0.005). precognition/experiments/electromagnetism

Barrington, Mary Rose & Markwick, Betty. A TELEVISION ESP EXPERIMENT, Journal 60, 1995, pp. 267-9. Authors’ abstract: An experiment presented on TV yielded marginally significant scores in trials using targets of mineral composition, while chance scores were obtained using food targets. The method of target preparation may have (accidentally) played some role in the outcome. telepathy/clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

Zilberman, Mark S. ON THE TRAINING OF PRECOGNITIVE ABILITY, Journal 60, 1995, pp. 289-92. Author’s abstract: A statistical analysis of 5100 trials where the operator had to guess whether the computer, governed by a time-based Random Number Generator, would produce an odd or an even number showed that: (aP the number of correct predictions significantly exceeds chance expectation (p<0.004); (b) there is a practice effect such that the average number of correct predictions in the second half of each series of 100 trials significantly exceeds the number of correct predictions in the first half of the series (p < 0.03) and very significantly exceeds chance expectation (p< 0.00065). precognition/experiments

Song KongZhi. MATTER THROUGH MATTER - A CHINESE EXPERIMENT, Journal 60, 1995, pp. 293-9. Author’s abstract: A series of tests are described purporting to show the passage of small objects through a glass container in the presence of a well-known macro-PK subject. High-speed photography and video-taping were used to monitor the process involved. psychokinesis/experiments

Blackmore, Susan. WHAT’S IN THE BOX? AN ESP TEST WITH CHRIS ROBINSON, Journal 60, 1995, pp. 322-4. Chris Robinson, a well-known psychic sleuth, publicly challenges Blackmore to test him under controlled conditions. Blackmore accepts and sets up a test, in which she will select 12 household objects, place them in a sealed box and give the list of contents to referees, while Robinson independently tries to identify them in dreams. Of seven guesses that Robinson expressed certainty about only two corresponded to the actual objects. Forced choices for the remainder failed to correspond at all. Blackmore concludes that he displayed no evidence of psychic ability. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 61, 1996, p. 62. clairvoyance/experiments

Willin, Melvyn J. A GANZFELD EXPERIMENT USING MUSICAL TARGETS, Journal 61, 1996, pp. 1-17. Author’s abstract: An ESP ganzfeld experiment was set up using music as the target. 100 trials were carried out, mainly in Essex, over a period of 15 months. 120 different people participated in the trials, as Receivers, Senders and Helpers. Some attended more than one session and played more than one role. A hit rate of 25% was expected by chance and a hit rate of 24% was achieved, which therefore is not significant. However, the first 50 trials produced a hit rate of 32%, which could suggest that the initial feelings of excitement may have contributed to greater psychic awareness. A group of judges blind to the sequence of targets were employed to study the results, and their scoring confirmed that a few subjects had scored significantly above chance. Other factors such as age and sex also provided specific information. psi/ganzfeld/experiments

Willin, Melvyn J. A GANZFELD EXPERIMENT USING MUSICAL TARGETS WITH PREVIOUS HIGH SCORERS FROM THE GENERAL POPULATION, Journal 61, 1996-7, pp. 103-8. Author’s abstract: An ESP experiment was conducted as a continuation of the previously reported experiment using music as the target (Willin, 1996). Sixteen trials were carried out during a period of six weeks in Essex and Sheffield using four pairs of people with each pair participating in four trials. Pairings were chosen deliberately according to previous above-chance scores. A chance hit rate of 25% was expected and a hit rate of exactly 25% was achieved. One pair scored 50%, one pair scored 0% and two pairs each scored 25%. These results thus provide no evidence for the communication of music by ESP. psi/ganzfeld/experiments

Wiseman, Richard et al. AN EXPERIMENTAL TEST OF PSYCHIC DETECTION, Journal 61, 1996, pp. 34-45. Authors’ abstract: The media often describe how people claiming to be psychic have helped to prevent and solve serious crimes. In addition, some American law-enforcement agencies have reported using ‘psychic detectives’ to help resolve their investigations. Scientists in both Holland and America have carried out controlled studies investigating the efficacy of these claims. In August 1994 the authors added to this data-base by undertaking the first British scientific evaluation of psychic detection. The study involved three well-known psychic detectives. Two of these worked as professional psychics whilst the third had recently received a great deal of attention from the British media. These psychics were compared with a control group of three students (none of whom claimed to be psychic). All six participants were shown three objects, each of which had been involved in one of three solved crimes. They were asked to handle these objects and describe the nature of the crimes. Next, they were shown a list of eighteen randomly-ordered statements (six related to the first crime, six to the second and six to the third), and asked to select the six statements which they believed were related to the crime involved with each of the three objects. Results showed that the psychics were no more accurate than the students and that neither group performed at above-chance levels. An analysis of the comments made by the participants whilst they handled the objects revealed that the psychics made many more comments than the students but were no more accurate, and no comment made by either the psychics or the students would have been of value to the investigating officers. The methodology of this study is discussed, along with its implications for future research into psychic detection. CORRESPONDENCE, pp. 190-91. clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

Vasilescu, Eugen and Elena. THE MECHANISM OF TELEPATHY, Journal 61, 1996, pp. 211-20. Authors’ abstract: This paper revives to some extent the radio or electromagnetic theory of telepathic communication. The experiments, which involved numerous trials, including control ones, used an original apparatus, ‘Patulea’s prototype.’ The tests we used involved both the ESP cards and free-response material. The account is illustrated with a schematic diagram of the apparatus, a three-dimensional graph and three numerical tables. Results indicate that there is an ubiquitous ‘telepathic wave’ of 46.20 metres, and an optimal gain in amplification of 220 times. Scoring was duly raised and reached statistical significance. Although these experiments may be regarded as pertaining to the field of physics, the authors do not support a reductionist physicalism but, rather a double-aspect monism which regards mind and brain (body) as different components of a single neutral entity. CORRESPONDENCE, Journal 62, 1997, pp. 85-8, 189-90. telepathy/experiments/methodology

Wiseman, Richard. AN EXPERIMENTAL TEST OF ‘PSYCHIC DIAGNOSIS’, Journal 61, 1997, pp. 397-8. The author was asked by a BBC programme to assess the abilities of Ms Carol Everett, Britain’s best-known professional ‘psychic diagnostician’. However his study lent no support to the notion of psychic diagnostics, which he concludes has more to do with subjective bias than psychic ability. psi/healing/experiments

Curtis, James T. & Wilson, John P. SENSATION SEEKING AND ESP TEST PERFORMANCE: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION, Journal 62, 1997, pp. 1-21. Authors’ abstract: In this study, we examined the association of sensation seeking (SS) with individuals’ paranormal beliefs and experiences and analyzed ESP task performance as a function of SS. A volunteer sample of 379 undergraduates completed the Paranormal Belief Scale (PBS) (Tobacyk & Milford, 1983), the Richards (1988) short form of subjective psychic experiences, Form V of Zuckerman’s (1978) Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), and 40-trial, forced-choice ESP test. We found that SS generally was not related to subjects’ self-reported paranormal beliefs and experiences. The single best predictor of ESP performance was Experience Seeking (ES) - a subcomponent of SS - which accounted for 26.54% of the variance in subjects’ total ESP scores. High Esers scored significantly above MCE for both sets of 20 ESP trials, regardless of their Boredom Susceptibility (BS) scores. Low ESers scored significantly below chance for both sets of 20 trials. Results also indicated that, although low SSers did not seem much more likely to exhibit response biases (RBs) than high SSers were, the magnitude of lows’ RBs was significantly greater than for highs. Additionally, instead of scoring above chance levels for their counterbias responses as was hypothesized, lows scored significantly below chance on these responses, and the magnitude of lows’ below-chance scoring on their counterbias responses was significantly elevated relative to that for their other responses. psi/personality/experiments

Gissurarson, Loftur Reimar. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF MENTATIONS ON VOLITIONAL TASKS, Journal 62, 1997, pp. 22-35. Author’s abstract: Deals with the question of what people do when they exercise volition and will things to happen in a psychokinesis task situation. Descriptive data from 212 sessions, collected during five series of experiments, were analyzed. Following each session, during which two runs on the PK computer test ‘Synthia’ were completed, participants wrote down what strategy, if any, they had used while trying to use their will-power to influence the result. The data suggest that most participants try out several different strategies when confronted with a task which requires them to engage in willing certain things to happen. Strategies associated with scoring above chance on the PK task were: resonance, calling for external assistance, methods involving emotions, concentration, relaxation and imagery-based strategies. The importance of the present study lies in its contribution to the definition of volition. When striving towards a particular goal, people most frequently visualize the goal or some process leading to it. They try to relax and keep calm, focus their attention and concentrate on the task ahead. They also attempt to evoke strong positive or negative feelings towards the goal. Frequently they give themselves some pep-talk and try to guess when to take the next step leading towards the goal. In some cases they may even pray or call for some sort of spiritual assistance. psi/psychokinesis/experiments/methodology

Pallikari-Viras, Fotini. FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR A STATISTICAL BALANCING IN PROBABILISTIC SYSTEMS INFLUENCED BY THE ANOMALOUS EFFECT OF CONSCIOUS INTENTION, Journal 62, 1997, pp. 114-37. Author’s abstract: A number of observations in the field of anomalies research present striking similarities in terms of the statistical response of random probabilistic systems to the influence of conscious intention. The systems behave as if they were driven by a fundamental mechanism which tends to balance out statistical deviations from chance occurring during mental effort runs. New evidence will be presented to support early records of this statistical pattern from various independent sources. The whole of evidence presently available will be discussed in terms of the statistical balancing hypothesis and a model of bounded effect sizes. A method to overcome the limitations imposed by the bounded effect size will be suggested. Conscious intention appears to affect the statistics of random events by curving their probability space. psi/experiments/physics/theory

Sheldrake, R. & Smart, P. A DOG THAT SEEMS TO KNOW WHEN HIS OWNER IS RETURNING: PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS, Journal 62, 1997-8, pp. 220-32. Authors’ abstract: In 1991, Pamela Smart’s (PS) parents first notice that her dog, Jaytee, seemed to anticipate her return, apparently waiting for her at the window, beginning around the time she was setting off to come home. In May 1994, PS and her parents began to keep notes on her journeys and Jaytee’s reactions. In this paper we describe the results of 96 such sets of observations made between May 1994 and February 1995, relating to journeys on which she went up to 51 kms away from home. Jaytee reacted 10 minutes or more in advance of PS’s return on 82 occasions, and shoed no anctipatory reaction on 14. There was a highly significant correlation between the time at which the dog reacted and the time at which PS set of homewards (p<0.0001). Jaytee’s reactions did not seem to be attenuated by PS’s distance. In some additional experiments, his reactions occurred on 4 out of 5 occasions when PS travelled by unfamiliar means, for example in taxis. He also reacted on 4 our of 4 occasions when she set off home at randomly selected times. In one of these eO.OOOl). Jaytee’s reactions did not seem to be attenuated by PS’s distance. In some additional experiments, his reactions occurred on 4 out of 5 occasions when PS travelled by unfamiliar means, for example in taxis. He also reacted on 4 our of 4 occasions when she set off home at randomly selected times. In one of these experiments, both Jaytee’s reactions and PS’s movements were recorded on videotape, and showed that the dog reacted 11 seconds are PS was told to go home at a randomly selected time previously unknown to her. The evidence suggests that Jaytee’s reactions depended on an influence from his owner detected by the dog in a manner currently unknown to science. animal psi/experiments

Sheldrake, Rupert. COMMENTARY ON A PAPER BY WISEMAN, SMITH AND MILTON ON THE ‘PSYCHIC PET’ PHENOMENON, Journal 63, 1998-9, pp. 306-11. Points out that an experiment by Wiseman, Smith and Milton that failed to confirm Sheldrake’s earlier findings was widely publicized by the media by means of a press release issued by the British Psychological Society. The effect has been to nullify his claim that a facility exists in some pets to anticipate their owner’s return home telepathically. Sheldrake argues that the data recorded by the sceptics with the main subject of his experiment in fact support his own findings, but by arbitrarily changing the criteria succeed in giving a contrary impression. He also describes instances from Wiseman’s media appearances debunking his findings, arguing in one case that video clips shown on a television programme were edited in a misleading way. animal psi/experiments/methodology

Snel, F.W.J.J., Sidje, P.C.Van der & Millar, B. LAYING-ON-OF-HANDS AND ENZYME ACTIVITY, Journal 63, 1998-9, pp. 99-109. Author’s abstract: The influence of psychic healers to enhance enzyme activity has been the subject of study of several researchers (Smith, Edge, and Kief). The results of Smith and Edge are positive, while Kiefs results are negative. Since in the successful experiments the enzyme trypsin was used we set up two series of formal experiments. In the first only unselected (not gifted) subjects participated and in the second selected (gifted) subjects (psychic healers) as well as unselected. In the first series (with unselected subjects) we found an overall significant effect in the desired direction (meaning that the subjects were able to enhance enzyme activity). In the second series we could not confirm the result of the first series for the group of unselected subjects. We did find an overall significant effect for the healers group (in the opposite direction: more activity in the control tubes). Two out of 20 healers individually reached a significant result. We also found a significant difference in the mean number of scores in the right direction between the selected and unselected subjects (in favour of the unselected subjects). Questions resulting from these experiments give rise to new important approaches to healing, which are briefly discussed. DMILS/healing/experiments

Sheldrake, Rupert. THE SENSE OF BEING STARED AT: EXPERIMENTS IN SCHOOLS, Journal 62, 1998, pp. 311-23. Author’s abstract: Simple experiments to test whether or not people can tell when they are being stared at from behind were carried out in schools in Germany and the United States. Lookers and subjects worked in pairs, with the lookers sitting behind the subjects. In a series of trials the lookers either looked or did not look at the subjects in a random sequence determined by tossing a coin. In each trial, the subjects guessed whether or not they were being looked at. The results show an overall positive effect, with 56.9% correct guesses as opposed to 50% expected by chance. 97 of the subjects were right more often than they were wrong, and 42 were wrong more often than they were right. This positive effect was highly significant statistically (p = 3 ? 10-6). The data showed a consistent pattern. There was a positive effect when the subjects were being looked at, while the guesses were not significantly different from chance when they were not being looked at. In one school in Germany where sensitive subjects were tested repeatedly, 71.2% of the guesses were correct, and two students were right about 90% of the time. Possible sources of artifacts in these experiments are examined, and the implications of the results are discussed. DMILS/staring/experiments

Breederveld, Heyme. A MINOR CONTRIBUTION TO SOLVING THE FILE-DRAWER PROBLEM, Journal 63, 1999, pp. 223-6. Author’s abstract: In order to contribute something to the solution of the file-drawer problem in metanalyses, 11 PK experiments with dice that gave insignificant results are reported on. These experiments, carried out between 1967 and 1969, comprised 132,000 throws with a high-precision die from a cup and yielded 22,072 hits; deviation: +72. psi/experiments/methodology

Parker, Adrian. A REVIEW OF THE GANZFELD WORK AT GOTHENBURG UNIVERSITY, Journal 64, 2000, pp. 1-15. Author’s abstract: The results of five standard ganzfeld studies and one multiple target ganzfeld (the serial ganzfeld) study are reported. The standard ganzfeld studies form a highly significant and consistent data base with an overall hit-rate of 35% (39% in the case of auditory monitored studies) and a mean effect size of .24 (.33 in the case of the monitored studies). This database has been used to study psychological correlates of psi in terms of psychometric tests. The most successful of these tests are the Australian Sheep Goat Scale, the Magical Ideation Scale, and "Feeling" scores on the Myers-Briggs Inventory. Other scales that were used as predictors of psi-scores with varying degrees of success included the Transliminality Scale, the Defence Mechanism Test, and the Tellegen Absorption Scale. A further investigation suggests on the basis of confidence ratings made before and after ganzfeld relaxation, that there may be some awareness of the psi-content of the imagery generated during the ganzfeld state. The report includes a review of current work in developing the ganzfeld into a portable digital technique for process-orientated research. telepathy/ganzfeld/personality/experiments

O’Keeffe, C. & Alison, L. RHETORIC IN ‘PSYCHIC DETECTION’, Journal 64, 2000, pp. 26-38. This study examined the differences between the account-giving styles of psychic detectives compared with a control group. It was hypothesised that psychics would employ many devices commonly associated with known cold reading strategies, a distinct style of account-giving or ‘psychic rhethoric’. Eight psychics and twelve controls examined 3 objects from 3 crimes and were asked for their opinions about the likely characteristics of the offender. Although independent t-tests confirmed that psychics were no more accurate than controls, content analysis confirmed the hypothesis that psychics relied more heavily on a variety of rhetorical devices. clairvoyance/experiments/methodology

Parker, Adrian, et al. USING QUALITATIVE GANZFELD RESEARCH FOR THEORY DEVELOPMENT: TOP-DOWN PROCESSES IN PSI-MEDITATION, Journal 64, 2000, pp. 65-81. Authors’ abstract: It is proposed that the good quality hits of high psi-scorers with the ganzfeld can provide a rich and as yet unexploited source of material for studying how psi mediated information enters consciousness. A qualitative study is made here of the good hits which have occurred up to now in our programme of research. For most of these sessions a technique was used of recording the mentation report as it was given in real time on to a copy being made of the target video clip. The analysis of the content of these tapes strongly suggests that psi functions in a similar way to other sensory modalities when there is reduced information input. While perceptual images can be in some aspects quite accurate, the information responsible for it is often modified by top down processes so as to also contain misperceptions. Both the accurate and distorted aspects of the perceptual experience come however to be regarded as equally real. A theory of the involvement of top down processes specifies the parapsychological markers that will be evident in the mentation reports and how target selection and judgment can be improved. psi/ganzfeld/personality/methodology/theory

Wiseman, Richard, et al. THE ‘PSYCHIC PET’ PHENOMENON: A REPLY TO RUPERT SHELDRAKE, Journal 64, 2000, pp. 46-9. The authors give point-by-point answers to Sheldrake, reaffirming their conclusion that the results of their own experiments ‘did not support the notion that Jaytee could psychically detect when [his owner] was returning home’. animal psi/experiments/methodology

Sheldrake, Rupert. THE ‘PSYCHIC PET’ PHENOMENON, Journal 64, 2000, pp. 126-8. Points out that Wiseman and Smith’s experiment shows ‘a large and statistically significant effect,’ and that the differences in their interpretation arise from the fact that they have a different agenda. animal psi/experiments/methodology

Sheldrake, Rupert. EXPERIMENTS ON THE SENSE OF BEING STARED AT: THE ELIMINATION OF POSSIBLE ARTEFACTS, Journal 65, 2001, pp. 122-37. Author’s abstract: The sense of being stared at from behind can be investigated by means of simple experiments in which subjects and lookers work in pairs, with the looker sitting behind the subject. In a random sequence of trials the looker either looks at the back of the subject, or looks away and thinks of something else. In each trial the subject guesses whether or not he or she is being looked at. There is a 50% probability of getting it right by chance. More than 15,000 trials have already been conducted, involving more than 700 subjects, with extremely significant excess of correct over incorrect guesses (Sheldrake, 1999), indicating that people really can tell when they are being looked at from behind. In this paper I discuss possible artifacts that could have affected these results and describe the results of experiments carried out in a school in London in which I investigated the effects of blindfolding subjects and giving them feedback about whether their guesses were correct or not. Blindfolding and feedback had no significant effects. Under all conditions the scores in looking trials were positive and statistically significant, and in not- looking trials at chance levels. I also describe the results of a series of experiments carried out in schools in Ireland with blindfolded subjects who were not given feedback. The significant positive scores in these experiments confirmed that the feeling of being stared at from behind does not depend on visual clues, nor does it depend on the subjects knowing if their guesses are right or wrong. DMILS/staring/experiments

Roe, Chris A. et al. SENDER AND RECEIVER CREATIVITY SCORES AS PREDICTORS OF PERFORMANCE AT A GANZFELD ESP TASK, Journal 65, 2001, pp. 107-21. Authors’ abstract: A ganzfeld study was conducted in an attempt to confirm the proposed link between creativity and psi (cf. Dalton, 1997). Twenty-four pairs of participants volunteered to be tested, with one member of each pair acting as the receiver and the other as sender. Among a number of measures, all participants initially completed the three activities that make up the figurai form and activities 5, 6 and 7 of the verbal form of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Torrance, 1974). Two experimenters (EM and AA) were present for each trial with one being assigned to the sender (Es) and one to the receiver (Er). Once the pre- measures had been completed, the sender was escorted by Es to the sender’s room, where they were shown the target image. All targets and dummies were static pictures drawn by CR from the internet - EM and AA had no prior knowledge of the target pools and CR had no contact with the sender or receiver. The sender and Es remained in the sender’s room until after the trial was completed. The receiver was taken to a sound attenuated room where they went through a standard ganzfeld procedure. After 25 minutes the receiver was asked to review their mentation with Er and then view the four pictures that formed the target pool, awarding each a similarity rating (between 0 and 100). The four pictures were rank ordered according to these ratings. There was no time limit to this stage. Once a judgement had been made, the receiver’s experimenter collected the sender and the identity of the actual target was revealed. Of the 24 trials, only five resulted in a ‘hit’ (a rank of 1) which is slightly below chance expectation. An ESP performance score was derived by calculating the z-score of the target picture rating relative to the other three pictures in the pool. This measure was then used to look for covariation in performance with overall measures of senders and receivers’ verbal and figurai creativity. Three of the four correlations gave coefficients greater than .3 and are broadly in keeping with previous findings, although none was statistically significant once corrected for multiple analyses. Different patterns of association with creativity subscales were evident for senders and receivers that may suggest that the two roles require different aptitudes. psi/ganzfeld/experiments/methodology

O’Neill, Mick. [KLINTMAN EXPERIMENTAL FLAW], Journal 65, 2001, pp. 159-60. Warns of a possible statistical flaw in an experimental procedure earlier recommended to members. psi/experiments/methodology

Sherwood, Simon J., Roe, Chris., Simmonds, Christine A. & Biles, Christine. AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION OF DREAM PRECOGNITION USING CONSENSUS JUDGING AND STATIC TARGETS, Journal 66, 2002, pp. 22-8. Although many spontaneous cases of ESP, particularly precognition, occur during dreams, most experimental studies of dream ESP have focused on telepathy or clairvoyance. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate a methodology for testing for possible dream precognition and to find out whether consensus judging leads to better performance than individual judgements. During twelve trial nights, three participants (SS, CR, CS) slept at their respective homes and recorded their dream mentation. The following mornings, they viewed four pictures (one of which would be the target), judged their correspondence with their dreams and then ranked them in order. These individual rankings were then combined to form a group objective consensus judgement. The experimenter determined the identity of the target picture using a pseudo-random number generator. In terms of the number of correct judgements, the group and two of the individual participants scored less than the chance expectation which was contrary to our hypotheses; the other participant made four correct judgements which, although a non-significant deviation above chance expectation (p = 0.348), gives rise to a medium effect size (r = .43). These results do not provide much evidence for dream precognition nor any definite advantage of consensus over individual judging methods. Suggestions for improvements to the methodology are also discussed. precognition/dreams/experiments

Rose, N. & Blackmore, S. HORSES FOR COURSES: TESTS OF A PSYCHIC CLAIMANT, Journal 66, 2002, pp. 29-40. Eight ESP experiments were carried out to test the psychic claimant David Spark, between October 1998 and July 2000. OS’s main claim was predicting the winners of horse races. Experiments 1 and 2 tested clairvoyance for hidden playing cards and words, but with only a small number of trials. Experiment 3 used a simple computer run ‘horse race’. DS made his guesses from home. Experiments 5 to 8 took place in the laboratory and used a computer displayed ‘horse race’ with 10 coloured counters for ‘horses’. DS made predictions in advance and, in later experiments, could bet with toy money on the ‘horses’. None of these experiments independently produced a significant number of hits (i.e. the chosen horse won). Overall 210 trials were run in these five experiments, with 21 hits (exactly chance expectation). In one experiment DS correctly predicted the distribution of places but this was not replicated in a second attempt. In the experiments with toy money he did make a small profit. DS was interviewed after each of the later experiments. He was convinced that the results confirmed his psychic powers. psi/precognition/experiments

Roney-Dougal, S.M. & Solfvin, J. FIELD STUDY OF ENHANCEMENT EFFECT ON LETTUCE SEEDS - THEIR GERMINATION RATE, GROWTH AND HEALTH, Journal 66, 2002, pp. 129-43. In parapsychology there is a classic healing experiment in which seeds are stressed, then randomly assigned to either a healing or control group. Several of these studies have found that there is greater growth and healthier plants from the healed group. This basic laboratory experiment was taken out on a field trial at an organic farm. In this experiment the healthy organic seeds were not stressed beforehand, as we are looking here for greater health in the "enhanced" plants. This initial pilot study had three primary hypotheses: the "enhanced" seeds would have a greater rate of germination, greater growth and better health than the control. There were eight trials beginning in April, the final harvest being in December. The results do not favour the hypotheses of greater rate of germination and growth, but there is a measure of support for better health. There is a trend towards a significant effect here (F(3,24) = 3.13, p =0.044), with the "enhanced" group having the least fungal damage. DMILS/healing/experiments

Pablos, F. De. ENHANCEMENT OF PRECOGNITIVE DREAMING BY CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION: A PILOT STUDY, Journal 66, 2002, pp. 88-105. The neurotransmitter Acethylcholine (ACh) plays a significant role in the neurobiology of REM sleep and of memory. Drugs that inhibit Acethylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme degrading ACh, increase ACh levels in the brain, facilitating REM sleep and memory. The author postulates that precognition, the anomalous transmission of information from the future, may also necessitate neurotransmission of ACh in the brain, particularly during precognitive dreaming, a paranormal phenomenon that makes itself spontaneously evident during REM sleep. To prove that hypothesis he has registered his own precognitive dreams during a period of time in which he ingested Rivastigmine, an AChE inhibitor. Two variables, the proportion of dreams recalled and the proportion of precognitive dreams, were measured during a baseline period of nine months and during an experimental period of two months. The 60 days of the experimental period were randomly assigned either to placebo or to Rivastigmine so that a double blind Placebo/Rivastigmine 30/30 days design was established. We found a non-significant trend of higher dream recall during the experimental period considered as a whole and compared with the baseline period, and a significant increase in precognitive dreaming during the experimental period as a whole compared with the baseline period. Within the experimental period the proportion of dreams recalled and of precognitive dreams did not significantly differ in Rivastigmine versus Placebo conditions. precognition/dreams/experiments

Wiseman, R. & Smith, Matthew D. ASSESSING THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE AND MOTIVATIONAL BIASES IN BELIEF IN THE PARANORMAL, Journal 66, 2002, pp. 157-66. Previous research into the psychology of paranormal belief has shown that people tend to interpret ‘ambiguous’ stimuli (i.e., stimuli that could be interpreted as paranormal or non-paranormal) in a way that is consistent with their a priori beliefs. This paper presents two experiments that examine whether this tendency may be best explained by either cognitive or motivational factors. In Experiment One, participants were asked to assess four fictional horoscopes. Two ‘target’ horoscopes were apparently based on their birth sign, whilst the other two ‘control’ horoscopes were apparently based on a different birth sign. As predicted, believers in astrology rated the ‘target’ horoscopes as significantly more accurate and less general than disbelievers. If this difference between believers and disbelievers were due to cognitive factors (e.g., believers being more adept than disbelievers in seeing correspondences between the horoscopes and their lives), one would expect believers to rate the ‘control’ horoscopes as significantly more accurate and less general than disbelievers. If the difference between believers and disbelievers were due to motivational factors (e.g., believers being more motivated to find correspondences because they want the horoscope to be accurate), one would expect believers to rate the ‘control’ horoscopes as no more accurate than disbelievers. Results supported the cognitive bias explanation. In Experiment Two, participants were asked to help assess the outcome of a fictional ESP experiment. Participants were asked to rate the similarity between some sketches apparently drawn by an individual attempting to divine a concealed picture and (i) the actual ‘target’ picture and (ii) a ‘control’ picture. As predicted, believers rated the ‘target’ picture as significantly more similar than disbelievers. Again, if cognitive factors caused this difference one would expect believers to rate the ‘control’ picture as significantly more similar than disbelievers. Again, results clearly supported this notion. The importance of these results for work in this area is discussed and future research suggested. psi/personality/beliefs/experiments

Roe, Chris A., Sherwood, Simon J., Luke, David P. & Farrell, Louise M. AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION OF DREAM GESP USING CONSENSUS JUDGING AND DYNAMIC TARGETS, Journal 66, 2002, pp. 225-38. Spontaneous cases of ESP often seem to occur during dreams (Van de Castle, 1977). Experimental studies of dream ESP focusing on telepathy and clairvoyance have obtained some promising results (e.g., Sherwood, Dalton, Steinkamp, & Watt, 2000; Ullman & Krippner with Vaughan, 1989). Some such studies have used consensus-vote or pooled rating/ranking procedures in order to try to maximise ESP performance, and two recent dream clairvoyance studies found that participants scored marginally higher using consensus as opposed to individual target judging procedures (Dalton, Steinkamp & Sherwood, 1999; Sherwood et al., 2000). An attempted replication using a precognitive design by two of the current authors (Sherwood, Roe, Simmonds, & Biles, 2002) using static targets was unsuccessful. The current study was planned to overcome methodological weaknesses in that design. Using a clairvoyance design, 5 pilot and 31 experimental trials were conducted. The dependent variables were the correspondence rankings for the target-clip resulting from individual and group judgements. Predictor variables included whether the judgement was individual or group consensus, and target emotionality characteristics. Two of the three individual performances were better than chance expectation, but to a nonsignificant degree, and although the group consensus was superior to the performance of two individuals, it was not significantly better than chance expectation. Covariation of performance with target characteristics of enjoyability, affinity, emotionality and valence did not give rise to any clear pattern, although it is suggested that these findings may be best understood in terms of Palmer’s (1975, unpub.) interaction model. There was no evidence here that the relationship between target emotionality and trial success found in previous research could be explained in terms of a selection bias. psi/dreams/experiments/methodology